Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635–1636, oil on canvas, 50 3/8 x 59 3/4 in. (128 x 151.8 cm), Purchase: William Rockhill Nelson Trust, 31-94
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Fig. 1. Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Pan, 1636, oil on canvas, 53 1/2 x 57 31/64 in. (135.9 x 146 cm), National Gallery, London
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Fig. 2. Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Silenus, 1635–1636, oil on canvas, 56 1/4 x 47 7/16 in. (142.9 x 120.5 cm), National Gallery, London
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Fig. 3. Nicolas Poussin, The Indian Triumph of Bacchus, ca. 1635–1636, pen, brown ink, and black chalk on paper, 7 15/16 x 12 3/8 in. (20.2 x 31.4 cm), Windsor Castle, Royal Library, London
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Fig. 4. Nicolas Poussin, Study for The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635, brown ink and blue-gray wash over black chalk on paper, 6 3/16 x 8 15/16 in. (15.72 x 22.68 cm), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 54-83
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Fig. 5. Indian Triumph of Bacchus and Hercules, Roman, early third century, sarcophagus front, marble, Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire
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Fig. 6. Rotated and aligned warp thread spacing maps for all three canvases, shown in arbitrary sequence with the painted compositions in the same orientations and at the same scale. Diagram courtesy of Robert Erdmann.
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Fig. 7. Radiograph of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). The radiograph composite was assembled by Robert G. Erdmann.
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Fig. 8. Cross section from the center right background of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing the thick layers of the double ground beneath a thin layer of brown. Left to right: Backscatter electron image; normal reflected light; ultraviolet fluorescence. Scale bar is 40 microns.
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Fig. 9. On the left, radiograph detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636); on the right, an overlay of the radiograph and normal illumination (desaturated) details, showing the position of the vanishing point at Hercules’ nose
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Fig. 10. Diagram of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing key orthogonals passing through the vanishing point
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Fig. 11. Detail of the river god, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing an incised line that passes through his ear and jawline
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Fig. 12. Photomicrograph with slightly raking light, revealing an incised “X” at the right bacchante’s neck, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 13. Detail of Apollo with an incised mark on his raised hand (partially covered by retouching), Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 14. Detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing finely painted brown lines near Cupid’s leg
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Fig. 15. Detail of the central trumpeter, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 16. Detail of the river god’s forearm, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). Finely painted strokes of pink highlight and define the musculature.
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Fig. 17. Details of the leftmost bacchante’s face and upraised hand, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 18. Photomicrograph of green highlights on Hercules’ fingernails, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 19. Detail of the wet-into-wet paint strokes of the spotted animal pelt, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 20. Detail of the dryly painted, wet-over-dry brushwork of the centaur’s beard, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 21. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, of the rightmost bacchante showing the textures and opacity of the charcoal underlayer beneath the ultramarine blue robe. Her thighs are visible in silhouette through the robe layers, indicating that she was initially painted nude.
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Fig. 22. Photomicrograph of two tiny holes on the chariot wheel, partially filled with wax from the lining process, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 23. Photomicrograph, green paint beneath the right sky of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 24. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail of the upper right sky, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 25. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, detail of changes made to the trumpeter’s shoulder and his musical instrument, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 26. Infrared reflectogram of the rightmost bacchante, captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). A pinecone-tipped thyrsus initially depicted in her right hand was replaced in the final composition with a vine branch.
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Fig. 27. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail showing the original placement of Cupid’s quiver, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 28. Detail of the lower left putto, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). The curving wheel of the chariot provides some opacity to the putto’s profile and gives an indication of its original appearance without interference from the dark foreground. Paint abrasion has disrupted the subtle transitions of the thinly painted figure and exacerbated the influence of the dark underlying paint.
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Table 1. List of pigments identified on Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 29. Detail of the green drapery below the river god’s knee where the darkest green was sampled (center), exemplifying Poussin’s use of the warm-toned ground, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
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Fig. 30. A) Cross section of Bacchus’ elbow, including the upper beige ground and two nearly indistinguishable strata of the flesh color containing abundant vermilion, the first of which has been annotated with guide marks. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Backscatter electron image. Scale bar is 40 microns. The orange ferrous silica grain analyzed in the beige ground is exceptionally high in iron and was the only example that yielded a Raman spectrum (not shown) for the hydrated iron oxide mineral goethite. The beige ground in this location contains numerous coarse grains of lead white in two varieties whose optical reflectivity and atomic number brightness both differ. Raman spectra of these two coarse-grained classes, which occur throughout the painting, fall cleanly into categories correlating closely to reference standards for cerussite and hydrocerrusite from the RRUFF database as shown on the right.
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Fig. 31. A) Cross section from the blue robe shadow including the upper beige ground and all subsequent layers, showing the use of a thick layer of coarse charcoal and lead white as a base tone beneath the top layer of ultramarine, lead white, and charcoal. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Ultraviolet autofluorescence that better differentiates the components of the blue layer. C) Backscatter electron image. Scale bar is 20 microns. A coarse grain of brown-black material corresponds to umber, with an excess of manganese over iron shown in the elemental analysis, used to further darken the base tone.
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Fig. 32. A) Cross section from the peach-colored scarf near the bacchante’s left hand, including the upper beige ground and all subsequent layers. The layers comprising the scarf are poorly resolved from the brown background layer. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Ultraviolet autofluorescence shows that the scarf is comprised of three uneven layers atop the background color, the first and last of which contain large amounts of yellow lake pigment. Coarse lead white occurs in the first layer along with the lake but lead white is largely absent from the top layer. The nonfluorescent intermediate layer contains abundant earth pigments that function with the lake layers to give depth and opacity. C) Backscatter electron image showing the distribution of lead white in the various layers and a thin deposit of lead alteration products on top. Scale bar is 20 microns. Elemental analyses at the locations shown demonstrate that the lake is based on alumina and that the alteration skin covering it is comprised of lead-potassium sulfate compounds. The composition of a large translucent green grain among the earth pigments in the scarf is typical for one class that occurs throughout the green passages of the painting but might not have been expected to play a role in the bright peach color.
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Fig. 33. A) Cross section detail of the thigh of the bacchante bearing a serpent-staff, in the region where the hem has been raised, containing the preliminary yellow-orange drapery, reflected light with crossed polars. The section begins with a small amount of the first rendering of skin color, followed by the yellow robe (annotated by guide marks) and the exposed skin of the final version. B) Backscatter electron image showing the morphology of lead-tin yellow in the middle layer. Scale bar is 20 microns. The elemental composition of the bright orange ferrous silica (C) in the yellow layer is typical of one of the most widely used materials in this painting. The darker orange grain in the first skin application is darker and higher in iron (D) than most examples of this class but is also distinct from the red ochre used elsewhere. A coarse transparent fragment marked “X” was identified as glass based on its composition (E) and Raman spectrum (F).
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Fig. 34. Left) Photomicrograph of Bacchus’ waist, showing coarse grains of vermilion, ultramarine, and green earth in the lustrous skin, 40x. Right) photomicrograph of the shin of the bacchante riding the centaur, showing coarse grains of ultramarine and vermilion, 35x.
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Fig. 35. Photomicrograph of Bacchus’ thigh (shadow area), Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing examples of transparent quartz fragments that occur sporadically in the paint surface, but which can also be found in the paint and ground layers. Scale bar 2mm.
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Fig. 36. Polarized light microscopy examples of dispersed green earth pigments from Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), in transmitted light. A) Fine-grained agglomerate of a strongly birefringent aquamarine type from the surface of the wreath leaf, partially crossed polars, 200x. B) Deep green, highly birefringent particles with splintery fracture in the rightmost dark tree trunk (overpainted by the sky revision) partially crossed polars, 200x. C) and D) Coarse, rounded polycrystalline grain of a pale green species with low birefringence from the sparse tree against the golden sky, without polars and with partially crossed polars, respectively, 400x. E) and F) Blocky fragment with moderate birefringence and adhering yellow ochre grains from ground layer, without polars and with partially crossed polars, respectively, 400x. G) Fine-grained, rounded agglomerates of an isotropic pale green earth from the sparse tree against the golden sky, with adjacent ocher and lead-tin yellow particles, partially crossed polars, 400x.
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Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636

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doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210

ArtistNicolas Poussin, French, 1594–1665, active in Italy
TitleThe Triumph of Bacchus
Object Date1635–1636
Alternate and Variant TitlesLe Triomphe de Bacchus
MediumOil on canvas
Dimensions (Unframed)50 3/8 x 59 3/4 in. (128.0 x 151.8 cm)
Credit LineThe Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Purchase: William Rockhill Nelson Trust, 31-94
Catalogue Entry

curatorial

Citation

Chicago:

Ian Kennedy and Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” catalogue entry in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.5407.

MLA:

Kennedy, Ian and Aimee Marcereau DeGalan. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” catalogue entry. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.5407.

Fig. 1. Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Pan, 1636, oil on canvas, 53 1/2 x 57 31/64 in. (135.9 x 146 cm), National Gallery, London
Fig. 1. Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Pan, 1636, oil on canvas, 53 1/2 x 57 31/64 in. (135.9 x 146 cm), National Gallery, London
On May 19, 1636, Marchese Pompeo Frangipane wrote to Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII of France from 1624 to 1642, that he had asked the Bishop of Albi Gaspard de Daillon to bring with him from Rome “two paintings of Bacchanals which the painter Poussin has already executed in conformity with your wishes and intention.”1“Hò pregato Monsige il Vescovo d’Albis di portare a Vra Emza due quadri dè Baccanali, che il Poesino Pittore hà già forniti conforme al desiderio, et intentione di lei. Quà sono stati veduti con molto applauso e se saranno approvati dal giuditio anche di essa, io ascriverò a mia singolar fortuna havere impiegata non inutilmte la mia assistenza, come mi glorierò sempre di qual si voglia altra occasione haverò di poterla servire.” Quoted by René Pintard, “Rencontres avec Poussin,” Poussin Colloque 1958 (Paris 1960), 1:33n7. De Daillon, son of the Count (later Duke) du Lude, left Rome for his diocese at the end of May (Pintard, “Rencontres avec Poussin,” 32). In an undated letter, possibly of December 1636, Daillon reported to the Cardinal that he had now brought “the two paintings by Poussin” to the Château de Richelieu, the Cardinal’s enormous, recently completed residence on the borders of Poitou and Touraine in the Loire Valley.2“Monseigneur/Après avoir pris congé de V. E. dans Amiens, je m’en alloy au Lude, ou iay esté dans le lit six sepmaines, tourmanté de la plus grande incommodité de genouil qu’homme eut jamais, aussi tot que ma santé ma permis de me mettre en chemin pour Alby, ie lay faict, et pour satisfaire au Commandement que V. E. me fit d’apporter icy les deux tableaux du poussin, iy suis venu passer, ie les ay veus avec ceux de Monsieur de Mantoue, lesquels quoy que bons n’approchent point de la beauté, et de la perfection des deux que iay apportés. Cela n’empeschera pas qu’ensemble ils ne rendent le Cabinet de la Chambre du Roy parfaictement beau.” [“Monsignor / After taking leave of V.E. in Amiens, I went to Le Lude, where I was in bed for six weeks, tormented by the greatest discomfort in the knee that a man had ever had, as soon as my health allowed me to set out for Alby, I did, and to satisfy the Command that V.E. gave me to bring here the two pictures of Poussin, I came to pass there, I have seen them with those of Monsieur de Mantua, which are good [but] do not approach the beauty, and the perfection of the two which I have brought. This will not prevent them from making the Cabinet of the King’s Chamber perfectly beautiful.” Translated by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan.] Archives des Affaires Etrangères, Paris, fonds français, 826 84, fol. 88, as cited in Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Flammarion, 1994), 155. It is generally thought that both letters refer to The Triumph of Pan in the National Gallery, London (Fig. 1), and The Triumph of Bacchus in Kansas City. These two paintings, among others, were commissioned and/or assembled for the Cardinal’s new public picture room, the Cabinet du Roi, in an effort to make clear his vision of a unified and powerful France.3This is the premise upon which the exhibition by Hilliard T. Goldfarb is based. See Goldfarb, ed., Richelieu: Art and Power, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002).

Richelieu was no stranger to utilizing art in this capacity. In 1622, he had commissioned an allegorical cycle of paintings by Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1622–1625) celebrating the return of Queen Marie de Médicis to France following forced exile by Louis XIII, her young son.4The Rubens’s cycle was conceived not long after the queen mother’s return from exile with the expectation of asserting her influence in French policy. The cycle glorifies and vindicates her reign; see Goldfarb, Richelieu, 6. See also Ronald E. Miller and Robert E. Wolf, Heroic Deeds and Mystic Figures: A New Reading of Rubens’s Life of Maria de’Medici (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also discussion of Poussin’s Galerie de Hommes Illustres in the Palais Cardinal by Sylvain Laveissière, “Counsel and Courage: The Galerie des Hommes Illustres in the Palais Cardinal, A Self-Portrait of Richelieu,” in Goldfarb, Richelieu, 64–71. She had become regent of France when the nearly nine-year-old Louis ascended the throne following the assassination of his father, Henry IV, in 1614. Mismanagement of the kingdom and endless political intrigues led young King Louis to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother (and her superintendent, Richelieu) and executing her followers.5Charles Tilly, “War making and state making as organized crime,” in Bringing the State Back In, ed. Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). 174. Following their return in 1621, Richelieu became essential to Louis XIII as mediator between mother and son, and he rose to power quickly, becoming cardinal in 1622 and chief minister to Louis XIII in 1624, a position he retained until his death in 1642. The two mainstays of Richelieu’s role as chief minister were consolidating power in France and keeping the Hapsburg Dynasty, which ruled in Austria and Spain, in check.6Peter Zagorin, Rebels and Rulers: 1500–1660, vol. 2, Provincial Rebellion: Revolutionary Civil Wars, 1560–1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 9; and C. V. Wedgwood, The Thirty Years’ War (London: Methuen, 1981), 188. Richelieu was cunning and formidably intelligent. He deployed art to convey the glory of the state and the virtue of loyal service to the crown, relying on allegoric symbolism and historical parallels, either biblical or antique, to communicate these themes.7Goldfarb, Richelieu, 7. It is through this lens that one must consider the Bacchanal series Richelieu commissioned from Poussin for his Château de Richelieu in 1635–1636.

Fig. 2. Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Silenus, 1635–1636, oil on canvas, 56 1/4 x 47 7/16 in. (142.9 x 120.5 cm), National Gallery, London
Fig. 2. Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Silenus, 1635–1636, oil on canvas, 56 1/4 x 47 7/16 in. (142.9 x 120.5 cm), National Gallery, London
The earliest full account of the château, and in particular the Cabinet du Roi, was published in 1676 by Benjamin Vignier, the governor of the château from 1662 to 1684.8Benjamin Vignier, Le Château de Richelieu ou l’histoire des dieux et des herros de l’antiquité avec des réfléxions morales par M. Vignier (Saumur, France: Isaac et Henry Desbordes, 1676), 162–63. The Poussins were hung together with five Renaissance paintings by Italian masters: Andrea Mantegna (ca. 1431–1506), Pietro Perugino (1626–1689) and Lorenzo Costa (ca. 1460–1535), which had decorated the studiolo of Isabella d’Este in Mantua from 1525 or earlier (today these paintings are in the Musée du Louvre, Paris).9For an in-depth treatment of the paintings in Richelieu’s Cabinet, see D. Bastet, “Études iconographique des ‘Bacchanales Richelieu’ de Nicolas Poussin,” in Studiolo: Revue d’histoire de l’art de l’Académie de France à Rome 4 (2006), 167–86. Vignier describes the Cabinet du Roi as ten by twelve meters in area and some five meters high. It occupied the main floor of the southeast corner of the château. The wall paneling was divided into sections by ten caryatidscaryatid: In classical architecture, a stone carving of a draped female figure used instead of a column as a support. between which were panels, some decorated with fleurs-de-lis on a blue ground, others with battles and triumphs (conquests) of marine gods. The caryatids supported a cornice about two meters above floor level, and the Poussins were placed between the cornice and the ceiling, together with the five paintings from Mantua.10A rough sketch plan by Léon Dufourny of 1800, published by John Schloder, shows how each of the paintings was sited at the time of Vignier’s description. See Humphrey Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings (London: National Gallery, 2001), 360. Poussin’s third bacchanal, The Triumph of Silenus (Fig. 2),11For an overview of the National Gallery, Silenus’s detractors, and those who accepted the painting, as well as recent analysis that led to its acceptance, see Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Silenus’ Rediscovered,” Burlington Magazine 163, no. 1418 (May 2021): 408–15. For the technical thread-count study that laid the groundwork for such a reassessment of Silenus, see Mary Schafer and John Twilley’s accompanying technical entry. may have arrived after the other two; seemingly confirming this is Daillon’s letter to Richelieu in late 1636, in which he implies he saw The Triumph of Pan and its pendant, The Triumph of Bacchus, as completing the ensemble. The Pan and Bacchus by Poussin were on either side of the window on the east wall, and the Silenus must have been on the opposite wall between Mantegna’s Parnassus (1497; Musée de Louvre) and Costa’s Allegory of Isabella d’Este’s Coronation (1504–1506, Musée du Louvre).12As former National Gallery, London, curator Humphrey Wine points out, the Cabinet du Roi may not originally have been intended to look exactly like this. See Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 360. Inset into the chimneypiece was The Liberality of Titus (ca. 1637–1638; Harvard University Art Museums) by Jacques Stella (1596–1657). In the center of the ceiling was an oval painting of the Deification of Hercules (today lost; possibly after a design by Simon Vouet [1590–1649]), and in each of the four corners octagonal pictures of cupids carrying the arms of Hercules.13Pierre Rosenberg, “Les Bacchanales Richelieu: ce que l’on sait et ce que l’on ne sait pas (encore),” in Richelieu à Richelieu: Architecture et Décors d’un Château Disparu, ed. Stijn Alsteens et al., exh. cat. (Milan: Silvana, 2011), 129–35.

The Triumph of Bacchus and The Triumph of Pan remained in the Richelieu family presumably until the second quarter of the 1700s, at which point they were sold and replaced with copies, now at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tours. When the originals appeared in Samuel Paris’s sale in London in 1741, they made an impression on English antiquarian George Vertue, who recorded in his notebook that year: “Brought over from Paris lately, 4 several [sic] pictures of Nicolas Poussin, of large historical subjects—two I think bought by Sir Robert Bouverie and two others I have seen with great pleasure—one The Triumph of Bacchus—many figures finely designed—men and women satyrssatyr: In Greek mythology, a woodland god depicted as a man with a goat’s ears, tail, legs, and horns., centaurscentaur: In Greek mythology, a race of half-human, half-horse creatures., etc, and all so well preserved, clear and strong in his best studied manner.”14George Vertue, “Vertue’s Note Book, B. 4,” in “Vertue Note Books: Volume III,” special issue, Walpole Society 22 (1933–1934): 105. Many commentators saw and praised the two paintings while they were in England, singling out in particular The Triumph of Bacchus as “among the finest work of Poussin.”15John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters, vol. 8, The Life and Works of Nicholas Poussin, Claude Lorraine, and Jean Baptist Greuze (London: Smith and Son, 1837), 110–11. Gustav Friedrich Waagen, who saw the Bacchus in the 1857 Manchester Art Treasures exhibition, when it belonged to the Earl of Carlisle, called it “the most important picture here by the greatest master of the French School, going on to describe it as “rich in composition, of graceful motives, characteristic in the forms, clear in the color, and carefully finished.”16[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen, The Manchester Exhibition; What to Observe: A Walk through the Art-Treasures Exhibition under the Guidance of Dr. Waagen: A Companion to the Official Catalogue (London: John Murray and W.H. Smith and Sons, 1857), 23.

Despite these accolades, the attribution to Poussin has wavered. Anthony Blunt was the first to query the attribution to Poussin in 1966, believing The Triumph of Bacchus to be cold and mechanical in handling, with none of the delicacy and sensitiveness of The Triumph of Pan, then in the Morrison collection.17Anthony Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas Poussin: A Critical Catalogue (London: Phaidon, 1966), no. 137, pp. 95–98, 162. In support of this assessment, he cites doubts expressed by scholars in the French landscape exhibition of 1925 at the Petit Palais. Blunt believed the original to be lost, and that a copy was substituted when the pictures were sold from the Richelieu collection in the eighteenth century. Later, after seeing the Bacchus side by side with the National Gallery’s Pan in a 1981 exhibition at the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh, Blunt accepted the Bacchus as the work of Poussin but suggested the presence of studio assistance in both paintings.18Anthony Blunt, “French Seventeenth-Century Painting: The Literature of the Last Ten Years,” The Burlington Magazine 124, no. 956 (November 1982): 706–07. The painting was, however, only attributed to Poussin by Wild (1980) and rejected by Mérot (1990). See Doris Wild, Nicolas Poussin (Zurich: Orell Füssli, 1980), 1:23, 62–63, 63n4, 64, 89, 183, 198, 200, 211, 215; 2:66–69, 208, 243, 262, 264, 317; and Alain Mérot, Nicolas Poussin (New York: Abbeville, 1990), 84, 87–88, 92, 275, 305, 319. While not doubting their autograph status, Pierre Rosenberg said the pair have often been respected rather than admired.19“Mais nous ne pensons pas que leur sensualité figée, alliée au plus parfait scrupule archéologique soit aujourd’hui parfaitement comprise (pour tout dire nous les admirons plus que nous les aimons)” (But we don’t think that their frozen sensuality, allied to the most perfect archaeological scrulple is perfectly understood today [to be honest, we admire them more than we love them]). Translation by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan. See Pierre Rosenberg, France in the Golden Age: Seventeenth-Century French Paintings in American Collections, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982), 31–32, 308–09, 369, 378. However, other Poussin scholars, notably Jacques Thuillier, were not convinced; he maintained that the Nelson-Atkins Bacchus was “a good old copy” and that “only radiography and a comparative study of the fabric support would make it possible to remove the doubts.”20“Bonne copie ancienne,” “Seules la radiographie et l’étude comparative de la toile de support permettraient de lever les doutes.” Translation in text by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan. Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin, 254. Possibly on these grounds, both the Bacchus and the Pan were omitted from a 1994 Poussin exhibition in Paris in the belief that they did not serve the artist’s reputation.21See Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994).

Hilliard Goldfarb, in the catalogue for a 2002 exhibition on Richelieu in Montreal, expresses a more sympathetic view: “The Edinburgh catalogue (Poussin, Sacraments and Bacchanals, 1981) asserts that the painting has been harshly cleaned at some time in its history and contends that the drier and colder tonalities of certain areas may reflect this. In reality the composition’s palette is carefully orchestrated and enlivened by repeated highlights of red, lime green, honey yellow, coral and salmon pink. Most of the figures, especially the centaurs, the warm atmosphere, sky and landscape, and the handling of the vegetation argue forcefully for its autograph status. Awkward passages in the figures of the puttiputto (plural: putti): A representation of a naked child, especially a cherub or a cupid in Renaissance art. in the lower left, the musculature of the back of the river god do not appear to be of the standard of the others, but they have suffered from wear and losses.”22Hilliard T. Goldfarb, ed., Richelieu: Art and Power, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002), 2, 244–45, 292–95, 298. Although favorable, this verdict misses the fact that the picture is overall in very good condition (see the accompanying technical entry) and the quality of the execution consistent throughout. The handling is drier than in The Triumph of Pan, and the colors more muted, but this is in conformity with Poussin’s theory of “modes.” In a famous 1647 letter to his friend and patron Paul Fréart de Chantelou, Poussin outlines his idea to treat individual subjects differently, not only through a variety of expressions but also through different styles of painting: some subjects would be rendered more delicately, and others with more strength.23Poussin to Chantelou, March 24, 1647, in Charles Jouanny, ed., Correspondance de Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Jean Schemit, 1911), 350–52. Poussin’s handling in the Nelson-Atkins composition may be a function of the painting’s fidelity to archaeological sources, perhaps intended to be compatible with the works of Mantegna, with which it was destined to hang.24Poussin to Chantelou, March 24, 1647. For an excellent summary on Poussin’s theories of modes, see Helen Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Trumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae 37, no. 74 (December 2016): 241–54. Compared to the more dynamic Triumph of Pan, the frieze-like composition may perhaps be said to approach the pedantic, but the painting is redeemed from academicism by the delicacy of the colors and the contained energy of the figures as they appear in procession parallel to the picture plane.

The archaeological precedent for The Triumph of Bacchus comes from ancient sarcophagi that depict Dionysius, the Greek equivalent to Bacchus. The centaurs and maenads (female followers of Bacchus) are common motifs in such reliefs, including, on occasion, the kind of dancing female figure in the background to the far right.25For example, Friedrich Matz, Die Dionysischen Sarkophage (Berlin: Mann, 1968), vol. 2, no. 117, pl. 53 (del Pozzo copy in the British Museum of a sarcophagus now in the Museo delle Terme, Rome). See also Matz, Die Dionysischen Sarkophage, vol. 1, no. 9, pl. 13 (sarcophagus in the Farnesina, Rome in 1556). The cupid holding the reins of the two centaurs, which in antiquity is usually positioned on the rump of a satyr, has been transposed in Poussin’s painting to the front of the triumphal car. His pose derives from a print by the Master of the Die (Italian, active ca. 1530–ca. 1560), after a drawing by Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520).26Adam von Bartsch and Suzanne Boorsch, The Illustrated Bartsch: Italian Masters of the Sixteenth Centuries, ed. Walter L. Strauss and Veronika Birke (New York: Abaris Books, 1982), 29:187. See a print owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art here https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/396189. Many of the figures are crowned with ivy or vine leaves, both sacred to Bacchus: ivy since it is evergreen and a symbol of eternal life; the vine since Bacchus was the god of wine. This, too, is a motif evidenced in a multiplicity of sources, including another sixteenth-century print by the Master of the Die after Raphael, entitled Sacrifice to Priapus.27An example of this print featuring a statue of Priapus and decorated with garlands by Bacchantes and goat-footed maenads, also attended by satyrs, Bacchus, and a baby goat, can be found at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1985.1.436, <https://art.famsf.org/master-die/sacrifice-priapus-after-raphael-or-giulio-romano-19851436>. The putti in the foreground and on the chariot are crowed with laurel, a symbol of victory since the ancient games at Delphi.28The ancient Greeks first introduced the laurel crown as an honorary reward for victors in athletic, military, poetic, and musical contests. The winners of the Greek Pythian Games held in Delphi every four years in honor of Apollo received a wreath of bay laurel. See Statue of Hercules, [ᴄᴇ 100–199, Roman, marble with polychromy, 46 in. high, at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 73.AA.43.1, <http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/124355/unknown-maker-statue-of-hercules-roman-ad-100-200/?dz=0.5253,0.2649,1.57>.

In the left background, the wreath on the spear is inscribed with the Bacchic cry, “Evoe, evoe,” while the adjacent Pan holds his shepherd’s crook and plays the pipes that he is said to have invented.29Many of the classical sources for Bacchus, including Pan and his pipes, can be found in a second-century Roman marble sarcophagus of the Marriage Procession of Bacchus and Ariadne, at the British Museum, 1805,0703.130, <https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/G_1805-0703-130>. Hercules, carrying his club, holds in his other arm the tripod30A sheet of studies of antiquities by Poussin (today at the Getty Museum) includes a sketch of a Roman tripod acquired by Nicolas Claude Fabri de Pieresc in 1629. See David Jaffé, “Two Bronzes in Poussin’s ‘Studies of Antiquities,’” J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 17 (1989): 42–45. In the Pieresc tripod, the legs support a bowl; in the tripod in the Kansas City painting, the legs support a circular rim into which an urn is inserted. he stole from Apollo, who is in turn depicted driving his chariot in the sky.31The motif of Apollo riding in his chariot across the sky can be found in many ancient sources as well as near-contemporaneous print sources, including the Master of the Die (after Raphael), Apollo in His Horse-Drawn Chariot, 1530–1560, engraving, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 49.97.327, <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/396037>. The leopard skin of the female rider of the rearmost centaur refers to Bacchus’s conquest of India, in which his chariot was drawn by leopards—a motif traditionally ascribed to a literary source, Lucian’s Dionysus.32See Lucian, of Samosata, ed. and trans. A. M. Harmon, K. Kilburn, and M. D. Macleod (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1913). See also Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.: Text (London: Phaidon, 1967), 1:137. To the far right, the maenad’s thyrsus (staff), common in Bacchic rites, is decorated with a pine cone and a serpent, both fertility symbols associated with Bacchus.33A thyrsus is a wand or staff of giant fennel covered with ivy vines and leaves, often topped with a pine cone, and carried during Hellenic festivals and religious ceremonies. See the ancient Greek sculpture of the Braschi Antinous, 138 ᴄᴇ, marble, Vatican Museums, Rome. The thyrsus is typically associated with the Greek god Dionysus or his Roman counterpart, Bacchus. See William Smith, William Wayte, and G. E. Marindin, eds., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (London, J. Murray, 1890), s.v. “thrysus,” <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0063:entry=thyrsus-cn&highlight=thyrsus>, accessed September 13, 2021. The river god in the foreground, representing the river Indus, is another reference to Bacchus’s Indian expedition, and the palm, another triumphal symbol. The overturned jar once contained wine.

The pose of Bacchus himself also has an antique source; it is taken from an ancient painting (now lost) copied in a drawing for Cassiano dal Pozzo’s Paper Museum, possibly by Pietro Santi Bartoli (Italian, 1615–1700).34Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, 1:232; Francesco Solinas, Arte e Scienza nella Roma Barocca: Le collezione di Cassiano dal Pozzo, exh. cat. (Rome: Palazzo Barberini, 2000). The painting is now lost, but according to Bellori was discovered near the Theater of Marcellus. Giovanni Pietro Bellori engraved it in his Fragmenta Vestigii Veteris Romae, ex lapidibus Farnesianis, published in 1673. See Giovanni Pietro Bellori, Fragmenta Vestigii Veteris Romae, ex lapidibus Farnesianis (Rome: Ioannis Iacobi de Rubeis, 1673), 1. The subject of the lost painting is a triumph, possibly of the Goddess Roma, who is seated in the same pose as Poussin’s Bacchus, although she is clad in drapery and wearing a helmet. Other motifs in The Triumph of Bacchus lack an antique precedent: the serpentine trumpet behind the satyrs is more closely related to an instrument invented around 1600. Likewise, the triumphal carriage of Bacchus is unlike the chariots in ancient reliefs and closer to a Renaissance pattern like the “floats” in the illustrations to Onofrio Panvinio, Fastorum Libri V (Five Books on the Fasti), published in Venice in 1558.35Onofrio Panvinio, Fastorum Libri V a Romulo Rege usque ad Imp. Caesarem Carolum V . . . Eiusdem in Fastorum Libros Commentarii (Venice, 1558), 453–62. See Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2007). The wheels resemble those in a Poussin drawing in a private collection made after a print by Antonio Fantuzzi (Italian, active 1537–1550), after a battle scene by Giulio Romano (Italian, probably 1499–1546).36Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665; Catalogue raisonné des dessins (Milan: Leonardo, 1994), no. 185, 1:352. Similar wheels appear in a print by the Master of the Die after Giulio Romano, Cybele on Her Chariot (Bartsch, The Illustrated Bartsch, nos. 18-II, p. 29:175. A study of a chariot similar to that in the Poussin by Jacques Louis David was publishe in Pierre Rosenberg and B. Peronnet, “Un album inédit de David,” Revue de L’Art 142, no. 4 (2003): 45–83. Since the chariot is not of antique design, it is likely that the drawing, which dates from the late 1770s, was made either after the original painting, which was then in England, or after a copy available in France.

Fig. 3. Nicolas Poussin, The Indian Triumph of Bacchus, ca. 1635–1636, pen, brown ink, and black chalk on paper, 7 15/16 x 12 3/8 in. (20.2 x 31.4 cm), Windsor Castle, Royal Library, London
Fig. 3. Nicolas Poussin, The Indian Triumph of Bacchus, ca. 1635–1636, pen, brown ink, and black chalk on paper, 7 15/16 x 12 3/8 in. (20.2 x 31.4 cm), Windsor Castle, Royal Library, London
Fig. 3. Nicolas Poussin, The Indian Triumph of Bacchus, ca. 1635–1636, pen, brown ink, and black chalk on paper, 7 15/16 x 12 3/8 in. (20.2 x 31.4 cm), Windsor Castle, Royal Library, London
Fig. 4. Nicolas Poussin, Study for The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635, brown ink and blue-gray wash over black chalk on paper, 6 3/16 x 8 15/16 in. (15.72 x 22.68 cm), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 54-83
Fig. 4. Nicolas Poussin, Study for The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635, brown ink and blue-gray wash over black chalk on paper, 6 3/16 x 8 15/16 in. (15.72 x 22.68 cm), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 54-83
Fig. 4. Nicolas Poussin, Study for The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635, brown ink and blue-gray wash over black chalk on paper, 6 3/16 x 8 15/16 in. (15.72 x 22.68 cm), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 54-83
There are a number of preparatory drawings for the painting, though not as many as for its companion, The Triumph of Pan. The best known of these is at Windsor Castle, London (Fig. 3).37Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 83, pp. 1:148–51. Here the figures advance on a diagonal in typically baroque fashion. The motif of Bacchus’s Indian triumph, only hinted at in the painting, is more evident here, since the chariot is drawn by leopards. Elephants and camels appear in the background, exotic animals associated with India and other far-off places. Next to the chariot, Silenus is shown on a braying donkey, another motif suppressed in the painting.38The verso of a drawing in the Uffizi related to the The Triumph of Pan features studies of centaurs, one rearing up as in the painting but holding a banner, the other on its knees with a cupid on its back, following antique precedents. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, 1:156–57, no. 86. The somewhat damaged drawing in Kansas City (Fig. 4) is closer to the final result. The composition is now parallel to the picture plane and the pose of Bacchus more nearly established, but there are still many differences that elucidate Poussin’s thought processes.39The chariot is again more authentically antique. As in the painting, it is drawn by cavorting satyrs, the one nearest the chariot carrying a female figure. The elephants and camels, later suppressed, survive in the background. A satyr and maenad, also eliminated from the paintings, appear to the rear of the chariot. To the far right, a bacchante anticipates the dancing female seen in the background of the painting, though she is more covered by drapery. In the foreground the river god, instead of in profile and with his back to us as later, faces outward. Otherwise the foreground is relatively bare, lacking the overturned jar and putto climbing out of the water. Generally speaking, the drawing is more frenzied than the picture, with more explicit Indian references in the animals.40A sheet of studies in the Hermitage again addresses the two satyrs, in this case near their final form. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 89, pp. 1:162–63. A related drawing in Bayonne shows maenads with a thyrsus and a satyr abducting a nymph, though the pose of the maenad differs from the picture. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 90, pp. 1:162–63. A fragment of a drawing in The Los Angeles County Museum of Art, joined to another fragment of a Holy Family, again shows a female figure riding a satyr. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 91, pp. 1:164–65.

Why Cardinal Richelieu should have specifically ordered paintings of bacchanals for the Cabinet du Roi has been much discussed. What remains certain is Richelieu’s understanding of the propagandistic possibilities of art, as evidenced by his role in artistic commissions that collectively sought to reestablish the centrality of power and influence of France. As suggested earlier, the fidelity to archaeological sources of the three Bacchus paintings may have been encouraged by their destination as companions to works by Mantegna, an early Renaissance artist known for accurately sourcing ancient subject matter.41It is not clear whether Poussin ever saw the Mantegnas from the studio of Isabella d’Este before they were sent from Mantua to France in 1624–1629, but he would have been familiar enough with Mantegna’s style from prints by or after Mantegna. A pen and wash copy by Poussin after Mantegna’s Triumph of Caesar exists in a private collection in Paris; see Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 206, 1:402. But this still does not explain Poussin’s choice of subject. The various interpretations have been concisely summarized by Humphrey Wine.42Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 360–61. According to Paola Santucci, based on parallels between Bacchus and Christian mysteries by some Christian writers (including Blaise de Vigenère in his edition of Philostratus), bacchanals are allegories of death and resurrection.43Paola Santucci, Poussin: Tradizione Ermetica e Classicismo Gesuita (Salerno: Cooperativa, 1985), 27–30, 32, 132. See also Blaise de Vigénère, Les images, ou Tableaux de platte peinture de Philostrate Lemnien (Paris: Abel Langelier, 1597). Charles Dempsey, in an article on Poussin’s Triumph of Venus in Philadelphia—also a Richelieu commission—proposed a reference to the four elements or four seasons, but this seems unlikely, as Dempsey acknowledged, since the Philadelphia picture was never part of the bacchanal series.44Charles Dempsey, “Poussin’s ‘Marine Venus’ at Philadelphia: A Re-Identification Accepted,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 28 (1965): 341. Elsewhere he argued that the Bacchus showed the “borderline moment between the fruitful season and the season of death, in a year which following the ancients, had only three seasons.”45Charles Dempsey, “The Classical Perception of Nature in Poussin’s Earlier Work,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 29 (1966): 243. He further argued that the Bacchus was one of a number of Poussins concerned with time and mutability but did not relate this interpretation to the other two bacchanals or discuss why, on this basis, they should have been appropriate to the cardinal or to the public space of the Cabinet du Roi. The unusual inclusion of Hercules in The Triumph of Bacchus has been elucidated by Malcolm Bull in reference to a sarcophagus then in the Aldobrandini Collection and today at Woburn Abbey, in which Hercules appears and which Poussin would have known (Fig. 5).46Malcolm Bull, “Poussin’s Bacchanals for Cardinal Richelieu,” Burlington Magazine 137, no. 1102 (January 1995): 5–6, 9–11. Bull also added that Richelieu was praised as a French Hercules and a French Neptune (reflecting his position as Superintendent of Navigation and Commerce) in a collection of Latin verses published in 1634, the Epinicia Musarum. The king, like Holy Roman Emperor Charles V before him, was also associated with Hercules, so the dual reference would have been appropriate for a Cabinet du Roi.

Fig. 5. Indian Triumph of Bacchus and Hercules, Roman, early third century, sarcophagus front, marble, Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire
Fig. 5. Indian Triumph of Bacchus and Hercules, Roman, early third century, sarcophagus front, marble, Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire
Bull further links the Poussin bacchanals to François Rabelais. He argues that Chinon, Rabelais’s birthplace, was not far from the Château de Richelieu and that Richelieu, like Rabelais, would have been aware that vulgar subjects can allude to serious matters. Therefore, the bacchanals could be understood as quasi-Rabelaisian allegories of the Cardinal’s virtues, achievements, and lands. However, as Wine points out, Richelieu at this time was cajoling those in his sphere of influence to live not at Chinon but at the newly built town of Richelieu, which was linked to the château not only by name but by a connecting avenue.47Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 361. In addition, if the bacchanals were a shared joke between patron and painter, they would have been better located in the Cardinal’s private apartments than in the public space of the Cabinet du Roi. According to Delphine Robin, the bacchanals were intended to be read together with the Mantuan paintings, the ceiling painting of the Apotheosis of Hercules, and Stella’s Liberality of Louis XIII and Richelieu as evoking the return of peace, abundance, and joy following the military triumphs of Louis XIII, personified as Hercules in The Triumph of Bacchus.48Delphine Robin, Étude iconographique des Bacchanales Richelieu de Nicolas Poussin (PhD diss., Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV, 1998).

Robin’s topical and political explanation is perhaps the most convincing so far, given the character, status, and ambition of Richelieu himself. However, it still does not quite explain why Bacchus in particular should have been chosen as the triumphal protagonist, unless Richelieu merely wanted to follow the celebrated precedent of the Ferrara bacchanals by Titian (Venetian, ca. 1488–1576) then in Rome.49The paintings, which were made for Alfonso I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, are: Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 1522–1523, oil on canvas (applied onto conservation board 1968), 69.5 x 75 in (176.5 x 191 cm), National Gallery, London; The Bacchanal of the Andrians, 1523–1526, oil on canvas, 69 x 76 in (175 x 193 cm), Museo del Prado, Madrid; The Worship of Venus, 1518–1519, oil on canvas, 68 x 69 in (172 x 175 cm), Museo del Prado, Madrid. Be that as it may, any such interpretive meaning seems to have been overlooked by the time Vignier published his account of the château in 1676.50Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 361. By then, the primacy of the Bacchus theme had been reinforced by statues of the god all over the grounds, including one in a courtyard placed above a bust of Marcus Tullius Cicero. In relation to The Triumph of Pan, Vignier suggested a moralizing dialectic of the effects of drunkenness, not unexpected in view of the moral subject matter of some of the Mantuan pictures, including Mantegna’s Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue and Perugino’s Combat of Love and Chastity.51Vignier, Le Chateau de Richelieu ou l’histoire des dieux et des herros de l’antiquité avec des réfléxions morales par M. Vignier (Saumur, France: Isaac et Henry Desbordes, 1676), 162–63.

Since the completion of the bulk of this essay, new (and forthcoming) scholarship and technical study have combined knowledge of the ideas behind Poussin’s paintings, many of which are rooted in an understanding of classical texts and contemporary mythologies, and a more nuanced awareness of his technical process.52Chief among these scholars are Helen Glanville, whose forthcoming exploration of the syncretic/religious interpretation of Bacchus, grounded by a solid technical understanding of the artist’s process, promises to forge new ground. Glanville has contributed many recent studies on Poussin’s bacchanales that illuminate the course of her study to merge these two disciplines. See especially Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Triumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae 37, no. 74 (2016): 241–54. A new publication and exhibition at the National Gallery, London, and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, are also being realized around the idea of how Poussin’s understanding of ancient sculptures and Renaissance paintings of figures engaged in dance, which he encountered in Rome, helped him confront the problem of the body’s expressive potential in his paintings. See Emily A. Beeny and Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, Poussin and the Dance, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery Company, 2021). Much of this new scholarship merges the idea of Poussin as a painter-philosopher—whom his many biographers portray as someone who would lay down his brushes to walk on the Pincio while expounding his ideas about art and philosophy to a group of followers—with those of an exacting practitioner who altered his approach to compositions, “even the texture and consistency of his pigments . . . into elements that not only create the illusion of representing the world, but also communicated ideas and values in their own right.”53As discussed by Sheila McTighe in her article, “Poussin’s Practice: A New Plea for Poussin as a Painter,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April–September 2014): 11. For a particularly acute version of the painter-philosopher aspect of Poussin, see James Elmes, The Arts and Artists; or, Anecdotes and Relics of the Schools of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (London: John Knight and Henry Lacey, 1825), 2:44–45. The thread-count studies of Poussin’s three bacchanals (see accompanying technical essay) carried out in 2014 by the Nelson-Atkins team and academic researchers Robert Erdmann and C. Richard Johnson of the Thread Count Automation Project, has also shed fundamental new light on the technical foundation of these paintings.54See Twilley, Myers, and Schafer, “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques,” 71–83. See also Robert G. Erdmann et al., “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” AIC Paintings Specialty Group: Postprints 26; Papers Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis (Washington, DC: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2013), 155–72. Historically, there has been a level of skepticism or wholesale dismissal of technical studies on the grounds that they, in Pierre Rosenberg’s words, propose to “supplant the art historian whose major attribute . . . is his ‘eye’” with a study that aims to assert what is true through science.55See Pierre Rosenberg, “On the Developments in the History of Art,&rduo; Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April–September 2014): 7. However, after much consideration, Rosenberg concludes, these studies, performed in concert with curators, conservators, and scientists, provide a number of answers to questions that have long been issues of debate. It is on these collective grounds that Kansas City’s Triumph of Bacchus by Nicolas Poussin firmly stands.

Ian Kennedy, 2008

Notes

  1. “Hò pregato Monsige il Vescovo d’Albis di portare a Vra Emza due quadri dè Baccanali, che il Poesino Pittore hà già forniti conforme al desiderio, et intentione di lei. Quà sono stati veduti con molto applauso e se saranno approvati dal giuditio anche di essa, io ascriverò a mia singolar fortuna havere impiegata non inutilmte la mia assistenza, come mi glorierò sempre di qual si voglia altra occasione haverò di poterla servire.” Quoted by René Pintard, “Rencontres avec Poussin,” Poussin Colloque 1958 (Paris 1960), 1:33n7. De Daillon, son of the Count (later Duke) du Lude, left Rome for his diocese at the end of May (Pintard, “Rencontres avec Poussin,” 32).

  2. “Monseigneur/Après avoir pris congé de V. E. dans Amiens, je m’en alloy au Lude, ou iay esté dans le lit six sepmaines, tourmanté de la plus grande incommodité de genouil qu’homme eut jamais, aussi tot que ma santé ma permis de me mettre en chemin pour Alby, ie lay faict, et pour satisfaire au Commandement que V. E. me fit d’apporter icy les deux tableaux du poussin, iy suis venu passer, ie les ay veus avec ceux de Monsieur de Mantoue, lesquels quoy que bons n’approchent point de la beauté, et de la perfection des deux que iay apportés. Cela n’empeschera pas qu’ensemble ils ne rendent le Cabinet de la Chambre du Roy parfaictement beau.” [“Monsignor / After taking leave of V.E. in Amiens, I went to Le Lude, where I was in bed for six weeks, tormented by the greatest discomfort in the knee that a man had ever had, as soon as my health allowed me to set out for Alby, I did, and to satisfy the Command that V.E. gave me to bring here the two pictures of Poussin, I came to pass there, I have seen them with those of Monsieur de Mantua, which are good [but] do not approach the beauty, and the perfection of the two which I have brought. This will not prevent them from making the Cabinet of the King’s Chamber perfectly beautiful. ” Translated by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan.] Archives des Affaires Etrangères, Paris, fonds français, 826 84, fol. 88, as cited in Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Flammarion, 1994), 155.

  3. This is the premise upon which the exhibition by Hilliard T. Goldfarb is based. See Goldfarb, ed., Richelieu: Art and Power, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002).

  4. The Rubens’s cycle was conceived not long after the queen mother’s return from exile with the expectation of asserting her influence in French policy. The cycle glorifies and vindicates her reign; see Goldfarb, Richelieu, 6. See also Ronald E. Miller and Robert E. Wolf, Heroic Deeds and Mystic Figures: A New Reading of Rubens’s Life of Maria de’Medici (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also discussion of Poussin’s Galerie de Hommes Illustres in the Palais Cardinal by Sylvain Laveissière, “Counsel and Courage: The Galerie des Hommes Illustres in the Palais Cardinal, A Self-Portrait of Richelieu,” in Goldfarb, Richelieu, 64–71.

  5. Charles Tilly, “War making and state making as organized crime,” in Bringing the State Back In, ed. Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). 174.

  6. Peter Zagorin, Rebels and Rulers: 1500–1660, vol. 2, Provincial Rebellion: Revolutionary Civil Wars, 1560–1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 9; and C. V. Wedgwood, The Thirty Years’ War (London: Methuen, 1981), 188.

  7. Goldfarb, Richelieu, 7.

  8. Benjamin Vignier, Le Château de Richelieu ou l’histoire des dieux et des herros de l’antiquité avec des réfléxions morales par M. Vignier (Saumur, France: Isaac et Henry Desbordes, 1676), 162–63.

  9. For an in-depth treatment of the paintings in Richelieu’s Cabinet, see D. Bastet, “Études iconographique des ‘Bacchanales Richelieu’ de Nicolas Poussin,” in Studiolo: Revue d’histoire de l’art de l’Académie de France à Rome 4 (2006), 167–86.

  10. A rough sketch plan by Léon Dufourny of 1800, published by John Schloder, shows how each of the paintings was sited at the time of Vignier’s description. See Humphrey Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings (London: National Gallery, 2001), 360.

  11. For an overview of the National Gallery, Silenus’s detractors, and those who accepted the painting, as well as recent analysis that led to its acceptance, see Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Silenus’ Rediscovered,” Burlington Magazine 163, no. 1418 (May 2021): 408–15. For the technical thread-count study that laid the groundwork for such a reassessment of Silenus, see Mary Schafer and John Twilley’s accompanying technical entry.

  12. As former National Gallery, London, curator Humphrey Wine points out, the Cabinet du Roi may not originally have been intended to look exactly like this. See Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 360.

  13. Pierre Rosenberg, “Les Bacchanales Richelieu: ce que l’on sait et ce que l’on ne sait pas (encore),” in Richelieu à Richelieu: Architecture et Décors d’un Château Disparu, ed. Stijn Alsteens et al., exh. cat. (Milan: Silvana, 2011), 129–35.

  14. George Vertue, “Vertue’s Note Book, B. 4,” in “Vertue Note Books: Volume III,” special issue, Walpole Society 22 (1933–1934): 105.

  15. John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters, vol. 8, The Life and Works of Nicholas Poussin, Claude Lorraine, and Jean Baptist Greuze (London: Smith and Son, 1837), 110–11.

  16. [Gustav Friedrich] Waagen, The Manchester Exhibition; What to Observe: A Walk through the Art-Treasures Exhibition under the Guidance of Dr. Waagen: A Companion to the Official Catalogue (London: John Murray and W.H. Smith and Sons, 1857), 23.

  17. Anthony Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas Poussin: A Critical Catalogue (London: Phaidon, 1966), no. 137, pp. 95–98, 162.

  18. Anthony Blunt, “French Seventeenth-Century Painting: The Literature of the Last Ten Years,” The Burlington Magazine 124, no. 956 (November 1982): 706–07. The painting was, however, only attributed to Poussin by Wild (1980) and rejected by Mérot (1990). See Doris Wild, Nicolas Poussin (Zurich: Orell Füssli, 1980), 1:23, 62–63, 63n4, 64, 89, 183, 198, 200, 211, 215; 2:66–69, 208, 243, 262, 264, 317; and Alain Mérot, Nicolas Poussin (New York: Abbeville, 1990), 84, 87–88, 92, 275, 305, 319.

  19. “Mais nous ne pensons pas que leur sensualité figée, alliée au plus parfait scrupule archéologique soit aujourd’hui parfaitement comprise (pour tout dire nous les admirons plus que nous les aimons)” (But we don’t think that their frozen sensuality, allied to the most perfect archaeological scrulple is perfectly understood today [to be honest, we admire them more than we love them]). Translation by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan. See Pierre Rosenberg, France in the Golden Age: Seventeenth-Century French Paintings in American Collections, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982), 31–32, 308–09, 369, 378.

  20. “Bonne copie ancienne,” “Seules la radiographie et l’étude comparative de la toile de support permettraient de lever les doutes.” Translation in text by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan. Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin, 254.

  21. See Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994).

  22. Hilliard T. Goldfarb, ed., Richelieu: Art and Power, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002), 2, 244–45, 292–95, 298.

  23. Poussin to Chantelou, March 24, 1647, in Charles Jouanny, ed., Correspondance de Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Jean Schemit, 1911), 350–52.

  24. Poussin to Chantelou, March 24, 1647. For an excellent summary on Poussin’s theories of modes, see Helen Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Trumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae 37, no. 74 (December 2016): 241–54.

  25. For example, Friedrich Matz, Die Dionysischen Sarkophage (Berlin: Mann, 1968), vol. 2, no. 117, pl. 53 (del Pozzo copy in the British Museum of a sarcophagus now in the Museo delle Terme, Rome). See also Matz, Die Dionysischen Sarkophage, vol. 1, no. 9, pl. 13 (sarcophagus in the Farnesina, Rome in 1556).

  26. Adam von Bartsch and Suzanne Boorsch, The Illustrated Bartsch: Italian Masters of the Sixteenth Centuries, ed. Walter L. Strauss and Veronika Birke (New York: Abaris Books, 1982), 29:187. See a print owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art here https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/396189.

  27. An example of this print featuring a statue of Priapus and decorated with garlands by Bacchantes and goat-footed maenads, also attended by satyrs, Bacchus, and a baby goat, can be found at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1985.1.436, https://art.famsf.org/master-die/sacrifice-priapus-after-raphael-or-giulio-romano-19851436.

  28. The ancient Greeks first introduced the laurel crown as an honorary reward for victors in athletic, military, poetic, and musical contests. The winners of the Greek Pythian Games held in Delphi every four years in honor of Apollo received a wreath of bay laurel. See Statue of Hercules, ᴄᴇ 100–199, Roman, marble with polychromy, 46 in. high, at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 73.AA.43.1, <http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/124355/unknown-maker-statue-of-hercules-roman-ad-100-200/?dz=0.5253,0.2649,1.57>.

  29. Many of the classical sources for Bacchus, including Pan and his pipes, can be found in a second-century Roman marble sarcophagus of the Marriage Procession of Bacchus and Ariadne, at the British Museum, 1805,0703.130, <https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/G_1805-0703-130>.

  30. A sheet of studies of antiquities by Poussin (today at the Getty Museum) includes a sketch of a Roman tripod acquired by Nicolas Claude Fabri de Pieresc in 1629. See David Jaffé, “Two Bronzes in Poussin’s ‘Studies of Antiquities,’” J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 17 (1989): 42–45. In the Pieresc tripod, the legs support a bowl; in the tripod in the Kansas City painting, the legs support a circular rim into which an urn is inserted.

  31. The motif of Apollo riding in his chariot across the sky can be found in many ancient sources as well as near-contemporaneous print sources, including the Master of the Die (after Raphael), Apollo in His Horse-Drawn Chariot, 1530–1560, engraving, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 49.97.327, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/396037.

  32. See Lucian, of Samosata, ed. and trans. A. M. Harmon, K. Kilburn, and M. D. Macleod (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1913). See also Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC: Text (London: Phaidon, 1967), 1:137.

  33. A thyrsus is a wand or staff of giant fennel covered with ivy vines and leaves, often topped with a pine cone, and carried during Hellenic festivals and religious ceremonies. See the ancient Greek sculpture of the Braschi Antinous, 138 ᴄᴇ, marble, Vatican Museums, Rome. The thyrsus is typically associated with the Greek god Dionysus or his Roman counterpart, Bacchus. See William Smith, William Wayte, and G. E. Marindin, eds., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (London, J. Murray, 1890), s.v. “thrysus,” http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0063:entry=thyrsus-cn&highlight=thyrsus, accessed September 13, 2021.

  34. Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, 1:232; Francesco Solinas, Arte e Scienza nella Roma Barocca: Le collezione di Cassiano dal Pozzo, exh. cat. (Rome: Palazzo Barberini, 2000). The painting is now lost, but according to Bellori was discovered near the Theater of Marcellus. Giovanni Pietro Bellori engraved it in his Fragmenta Vestigii Veteris Romae, ex lapidibus Farnesianis, published in 1673. See Giovanni Pietro Bellori, Fragmenta Vestigii Veteris Romae, ex lapidibus Farnesianis (Rome: Ioannis Iacobi de Rubeis, 1673), 1.

  35. Onofrio Panvinio, Fastorum Libri V a Romulo Rege usque ad Imp. Caesarem Carolum V . . . Eiusdem in Fastorum Libros Commentarii (Venice, 1558), 453–62. See Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2007).

  36. Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665; Catalogue raisonné des dessins (Milan: Leonardo, 1994), no. 185, 1:352. Similar wheels appear in a print by the Master of the Die after Giulio Romano, Cybele in Her Chariot (Bartsch, The Illustrated Bartsch, no. 18-II, p. 29:175. A study of a chariot similar to that in the Poussin by Jacques Louis David was published in Pierre Rosenberg and B. Peronnet, “Un album inédit de David,” Revue de L’Art 142, no. 4 (2003): 45–83. Since the chariot is not of antique design, it is likely that the drawing, which dates from the late 1770s, was made either after the original painting, which was then in England, or after a copy available in France.

  37. Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 83, pp. 1:148–51.

  38. The verso of a drawing in the Uffizi related to the Triumph of Pan features studies of centaurs, one rearing up as in the painting but holding a banner, the other on its knees with a cupid on its back, following antique precedents. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, 1:156–57, no. 86.

  39. The chariot is again more authentically antique. As in the painting, it is drawn by cavorting satyrs, the one nearest the chariot carrying a female figure. The elephants and camels, later suppressed, survive in the background. A satyr and maenad, also eliminated from the paintings, appear to the rear of the chariot. To the far right, a bacchante anticipates the dancing female seen in the background of the painting, though she is more covered by drapery. In the foreground the river god, instead of in profile and with his back to us as later, faces outward. Otherwise the foreground is relatively bare, lacking the overturned jar and putto climbing out of the water.

  40. A sheet of studies in the Hermitage again addresses the two satyrs, in this case near their final form. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 89, pp. 1:162–63. A related drawing in Bayonne shows maenads with a thyrsus and a satyr abducting a nymph, though the pose of the maenad differs from the picture. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 90, pp. 1:162–63. A fragment of a drawing in The Los Angeles County Museum of Art, joined to another fragment of a Holy Family, again shows a female figure riding a satyr. See Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 91, pp. 1:164–65.

  41. It is not clear whether Poussin ever saw the Mantegnas from the studio of Isabella d’Este before they were sent from Mantua to France in 1624–1629, but he would have been familiar enough with Mantegna’s style from prints by or after Mantegna. A pen and wash copy by Poussin after Mantegna’s Triumph of Caesar exists in a private collection in Paris; see Rosenberg and Prat, Nicolas Poussin: 1594–1665, no. 206, 1:402.

  42. Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 360–61.

  43. Paola Santucci, Poussin: Tradizione Ermetica e Classicismo Gesuita (Salerno: Cooperativa, 1985), 27–30, 32, 132. See also Blaise de Vigénère, Les images, ou Tableaux de platte peinture de Philostrate Lemnien (Paris: Abel Langelier, 1597).

  44. Charles Dempsey, “Poussin’s ‘Marine Venus’ at Philadelphia: A Re-Identification Accepted,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 28 (1965): 341.

  45. Charles Dempsey, “The Classical Perception of Nature in Poussin’s Earlier Work,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 29 (1966): 243.

  46. Malcolm Bull, “Poussin’s Bacchanals for Cardinal Richelieu,” Burlington Magazine 137, no. 1102 (January 1995): 5–6, 9–11.

  47. Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 361.

  48. Delphine Robin, Étude iconographique des Bacchanales Richelieu de Nicolas Poussin (PhD diss., Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV, 1998).

  49. The paintings, which were made for Alfonso I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, are: Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 1522–1523, oil on canvas (applied onto conservation board 1968), 69.5 x 75 in (176.5 x 191 cm), National Gallery, London; The Bacchanal of the Andrians, 1523–1526, oil on canvas, 69 x 76 in (175 x 193 cm), Museo del Prado, Madrid; The Worship of Venus, 1518–1519, oil on canvas, 68 x 69 in (172 x 175 cm), Museo del Prado, Madrid.

  50. Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings, 361.

  51. Vignier, Le Chateau de Richelieu ou l’histoire des dieux et des herros de l’antiquité avec des réfléxions morales par M. Vignier (Saumur, France: Isaac et Henry Desbordes, 1676), 162–63.

  52. Chief among these scholars are Helen Glanville, whose forthcoming exploration of the syncretic/religious interpretation of Bacchus, grounded by a solid technical understanding of the artist’s process, promises to forge new ground. Glanville has contributed many recent studies on Poussin’s bacchanales that illuminate the course of her study to merge these two disciplines. See especially Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Triumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae 37, no. 74 (2016): 241–54. A new publication and exhibition at the National Gallery, London, and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, are also being realized around the idea of how Poussin’s understanding of ancient sculptures and Renaissance paintings of figures engaged in dance, which he encountered in Rome, helped him confront the problem of the body’s expressive potential in his paintings. See Emily A. Beeny and Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, Poussin and the Dance, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery Company, 2021).

  53. As discussed by Sheila McTighe in her article, “Poussin’s Practice: A New Plea for Poussin as a Painter,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April–September 2014): 11. For a particularly acute version of the painter-philosopher aspect of Poussin, see James Elmes, The Arts and Artists; or, Anecdotes and Relics of the Schools of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (London: John Knight and Henry Lacey, 1825), 2:44–45.

  54. See Twilley, Myers, and Schafer, “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques,” 71–83. See also Robert G. Erdmann et al., “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” AIC Paintings Specialty Group: Postprints 26; Papers Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis (Washington, DC: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2013): 155–72.

  55. See Pierre Rosenberg, “On the Developments in the History of Art,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April–September 2014): 7.

  56. Ian Kennedy, former Louis L. and Adelaide C. Ward Senior Curator of European Art, drafted the bulk of this essay during his tenure (2007–2013) at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Research was updated and edited, with additional text and translations, by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan in 2021 in preparation for this catalogue. This essay is included with Kennedy’s permission.

Technical Entry

conservation

Citation

Chicago:

Mary Schafer and John Twilley, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” technical entry in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.2088.

MLA:

Schafer, Mary and John Twilley. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” technical entry. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.2088.

Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) executed The Triumph of Bacchus between 1635–1636 as part of a bacchanal-themed commission for Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu, that included The Triumph of Pan (1636) and The Triumph of Silenus (ca. 1637), both of which are in the collection of the National Gallery of Art, London (Figs. 1 and 2). Following the success of the series, a number of high-quality contemporary copies were produced—at least seven painted copies of Bacchus are known—and, as with other Poussin paintings, the existence of copies led to a prolonged period of questioned authenticity. Uncertainty about the Nelson-Atkins painting was first raised by Paul Jamot in 1925: “It’s the execution here that fails. It is exact, correct, but of a sort of cold and dead perfection.”1Paul Jamot, “Sur quelques tableaux de Poussin à propos de l’exposition du paysage français,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire de l’art français (1925): 103. Translated from French by Nicole R. Myers, former associate curator, European paintings and sculpture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Although the provenance history of Bacchus matches that of Pan until 1850, and the Nelson-Atkins painting was largely accepted as the original when the Richelieu series was reunited in 1981, some lingering doubts persisted in the literature. In 1994, Jacques Thuillier described Bacchus as a copy that “found defenders” and called for a scientific study to compare the series: “There is little chance that for these four works, painted over a short period of time and with the same destination, Poussin would have changed the type of canvas and preparation, or that his handling would have evolved much.“2Jacques Thuillier, “Poussin et la laboratoire,” Techné, no. 1 (1994): 18. Translation provided by Nicole R. Myers, former associate curator, European paintings and sculpture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. The fourth painting to which Thuillier refers is Poussin’s Birth of Venus, sometimes titled Triumph of Neptune (1635 or 1634; Philadelphia Museum of Art, E1932-1-1). The thread count of its canvas is markedly different than that of the other three, so that higher-level comparison was not undertaken. Mark Tucker, Aronson Senior Conservator of Paintings and Vice Chair of Conservation, Philadelphia Museum of Art, email message with the author, 2015. The authors thank Tucker for providing his manual thread counts that established this difference. To answer many of the questions that Thuillier posed, a technical study of the Nelson-Atkins painting and a comparison of the Richelieu canvas supports were conducted in 2011.3The authors are indebted to Nicole R. Myers, former associate curator, European paintings and sculpture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, for her curatorial contributions to the study.,4The scientific study of The Triumph of Bacchus was supported by an endowment from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for conservation science at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.,5Results from the technical study were disseminated in two prior publications. See John Twilley, Nicole Myers, and Mary Schafer, “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques for The Triumph of Bacchus at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 71–83. Robert Erdmann, C. Richard Johnson, Mary Schafer, John Twilley, Nicole Myers, and Travis Sawyer, “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” AIC Paintings Specialty Group: Postprints 26; Papers Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis (Washington, DC: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2013): 155–72.

Examination has shown that Bacchus is well-preserved with no structural instability, but its appearance could be significantly improved with removal of deteriorated varnish residues, which are now over forty years old. A scientific study of the Bacchus palette was undertaken in anticipation of a conservation treatment that would require more information on the original materials and their alteration over time. The success of the canvas weave match in linking all three paintings provided the basis for the palette study and may contribute to solving an art historical mystery: Do variations in the artist’s pigment use and the subsequent alteration of pigments influence the perceptions that sharply divided art historical opinion about whether the three paintings shared a common origin?

Canvas Weave Comparisons of the Richelieu Bacchanals

Historically, canvas weaves have been compared either by manually counting the average number of threads per centimeter in the warp and weft directions with the aid of magnification and a ruler, or counting them from radiographsX-ray radiography (also referred to as x-radiography or radiography): Radiography is an examination tool analogous to the use of X-rays in medicine whereby denser components of a painted composition can be recorded as an inverted shadow image cast on film or a digital X-ray imaging plate from a source such as an X-ray tube. The method has been used for more than a century and is most effective with dense pigments incorporating metallic elements such as lead or zinc. It can reveal artist changes, underlying compositions, and information concerning the artwork’s construction and condition. The resulting image is called an x-radiograph or radiograph. It differs from the uses of X-ray spectrometry in being dependent on the density of the paint to absorb X-rays before they reach the film or image plate and being non-specific as to which elements are responsible for the resulting shadow image. in which the canvas weave is visible. The process was error-prone, somewhat subjective, and often too coarse for statistical measures of the quality of a “match” to have real meaning. More recently, automated methods applied to radiographs of paintings have greatly improved the accuracy of thread counts and led to new forms of comparison derived from distortions of the weave that are imposed during stretching the canvas or subsequent modifications in its mounting or format.

The need for a rigorous comparison of the canvases and the need to quantify the certainty of an outcome that proved surprising to some, by demonstrating that all three bacchanals of the Richelieu commission were derived from the same bolt of cloth and that the third original painting of the group was one that had long been regarded as a copy, led to important refinements for comparing their weaves and in the methods available to the field of art history for the study of other paintings.

Fig. 6. Rotated and aligned warp thread spacing maps for all three canvases, shown in arbitrary sequence with the painted compositions in the same orientations and at the same scale. Diagram courtesy of Robert Erdmann.
Fig. 6. Rotated and aligned warp thread spacing maps for all three canvases, shown in arbitrary sequence with the painted compositions in the same orientations and at the same scale. Diagram courtesy of Robert Erdmann.
The initial comparison conducted by Robert Erdmann and C. Richard Johnson under the rubric of the Thread Count Automation Project, using radiographs generously provided by the National Gallery of Art, London, for Pan and Silenus employed mathematical methods previously used by Johnson and his collaborators.6These made use of a mathematical function known as the Fourier transform, operating on a digitized version of the painting radiograph, centimeter by centimeter. See D.H. Johnson, R.G. Erdmann, and C.R. Johnson, Jr., “Whole-Painting Canvas Analysis Using High- and Low-Level Features,” Proceeding of the 36th International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2011): 969–72; and D. H. Johnson, C. R. Johnson, Jr., and R.G. Erdmann, “Weave Analysis of Paintings on Canvas from Radiographs,” Signal Processing (Special Issue on Image Processing for Digital Art Work) 93, no. 3 (March 2013): 527–40. The result provided objective measurements of the variability in spacings between the threads in both directions and the angles at which the warp and weft intersect on a centimeter-scale grid. The outcome of the canvas weave comparison—a triple-weave match among the three paintings—confirmed that all three supports originated from the same bolt of cloth (Fig. 6).7Robert Erdmann and C. Richard Johnson, December 13, 2011, “Automated Canvas Examination: Poussin / NAMA / 31-94,” unpublished report, NAMA conservation file, no. 31-94. The canvas comparison and technical study were disseminated in two prior publications. See Erdmann et al., “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” 155–72. Twilley et al., “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques for The Triumph of Bacchus at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art,” 71–83. While this conclusion strengthens the widely held view that the Nelson-Atkins painting is original, the results held far greater implications for Silenus, which had long been considered a copy, although Pierre Rosenberg, Hugh Brigstock, and Henry Keazor believed it to be autograph.8Pierre Rosenberg, Nicholas Poussin, 1594–1665, exhibition catalog, (Paris: Réunion des museés nationaux, 1994), 226. Hugh Brigstocke, “Variants, copies et imitations. Quelques réflexions sur les méthodes de travail de Poussin,” in A. Mérot, ed., Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre par le Service culturel du 19 au 21 octobre 1994, vol. I (Paris: La documentation française, 1996), 209–10. Pierre Rosenberg, “Les Bacchanals Richelieu: ce que l’on sait et ce que l’on ne sait pas (encore),” in P. Bassani, A. Gady, and S. Kespern, eds., Richelieu à Richelieu: architecture et décors d’un château disparu, exh. cat. (Silvana: Cinisello Balsamo, 2011), 132. Humphrey Wine, National Gallery Catalogues: The Seventeenth Century French Paintings (London: National Gallery, 2001), 380, 383n40–42. A recent cleaning and in-depth technical study of Silenus has led to its reinstatement as an autograph work.9Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Silenus’ Rediscovered,” The Burlington Magazine 163, no. 1418 (May 2021): 408–15.

Strong cuspingcusping: A scalloped pattern along the canvas edges that relates to how the canvas was stretched. Primary cusping reveals where tacks secured the canvas to the support while the ground layer was applied. Secondary cusping can form when a pre-primed canvas is re-stretched by the artist prior to painting. along the right and left canvas edges of Bacchus and Pan, as revealed through the initial process, established a particularly close connection between these two paintings. However, the method required heavy intervention by the operator and was unable to deal with radiographic features that often interfered with the weave, including obscuring paint textures. It stopped short of being a thread-by-thread comparison and it lacked a means for human manual verification.

The development of an improved method, based on autocorrelation analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, was prompted by the need to substantiate an outcome that ran counter to the widely-held opinion that Silenus was not the original version by Poussin. The result of doing this along five guide threads for the three paintings of the Richelieu commission demonstrated a single abrupt increase in the quality of the match at one, unique juxtaposition of the canvases.10To demonstrate that a comparable outcome could be obtained from a guided traverse along a single thread, the innovation of using a “guide thread” visible in the radiograph, along which the spacing of every crossing thread could be manually entered, was introduced. The resulting set of spacing measurements could then be shifted, thread by thread, away from the apparent best match in both directions, and the quality of match in the resulting trial alignments plotted. See Erdmann et al., “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” 155–72.

The challenge of making a full thread-by-thread demonstration of the match computationally feasible was subsequently taken up by Laurens van der Maaten under the direction of Robert Erdmann.11Van der Maaten employed a machine learning approach that made a full comparison of the canvases in both directions possible at the level of individual thread spacings. The twelve-thousand, manually-extracted, thread-crossing measurements along the guide threads used in validation of the previous match were used in training of the new algorithm. Incorporated into van der Maaten’s solution was a means for projecting the re-emergence points of individual threads that become locally obscured in the radiograph by heavy overlapping paint strokes, increasing the proportion of the canvas that could be included in difficult comparisons. This method eliminated reliance upon local averages of thread spacings and made full thread-by-thread comparisons possible. See L.J.P. van der Maaten and R.G. Erdmann, “Automatic thread-level canvas analysis,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 32, no. 4 (2015): 38–45. The results of this thrice-repeated match with increasingly sophisticated methods not only bolstered the case for a common origin of the three Poussin bacchanals, but also led to improvements in the methodology for other works.

Overview of the Painting Construction of Bacchus

Fig. 7. Radiograph of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). The radiograph composite was assembled by Robert G. Erdmann.
Fig. 7. Radiograph of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). The radiograph composite was assembled by Robert G. Erdmann.
Bacchus was executed on a coarse, loosely woven, plain-weaveplain weave: A basic textile weave in which one weft thread alternates over and under the warp threads. Often this structure consists of one thread in each direction, but threads can be doubled (basket weave) or tripled to create more complex plain weave. Plain weave is sometimes called tabby weave. canvas, which is featured prominently in the radiograph due to the low contrast of the thinly-painted composition (Fig. 7).12See film-based radiographs, no. 461, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, no. 31-94. The tacking marginstacking margins: The outer edges of canvas that wrap around and are attached to the stretcher or strainer with tacks or staples. See also tacking edge. of the painting have been removed, and the wax-linedlining: A procedure used to reinforce a weakened canvas that involves adhering a second fabric support using adhesive, most often a glue-paste mixture, wax, or synthetic adhesive. canvas is stretched across a modern support. The canvas was primed with a double groundground layer: An opaque preparatory layer applied to the support, either commercially or by the artist, to prevent absorption of the paint into the canvas or panel. See also priming layer., consisting of a lower reddish-brown layer followed by an upper beige layer (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8. Cross section from the center right background of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing the thick layers of the double ground beneath a thin layer of brown. Left to right: Backscatter electron image; normal reflected light; ultraviolet fluorescence. Scale bar is 40 microns.
Fig. 8. Cross section from the center right background of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing the thick layers of the double ground beneath a thin layer of brown. Left to right: Backscatter electron image; normal reflected light; ultraviolet fluorescence. Scale bar is 40 microns.
The priming layerspriming layer: An opaque preparatory layer applied to the support, either commercially or by the artist, to prevent absorption of the paint into the canvas or panel. See also ground layer. appear to have been rubbed or sanded, as radio-transparent lines at the perimeter edges of the radiograph indicate a thinning of the ground at the inner edges and cross braces of a former underlying stretcherstretcher: A wooden structure to which the painting’s canvas is attached. Unlike strainers, stretchers can be expanded slightly at the joints to improve canvas tension and avoid sagging due to humidity changes or aging. (Fig. 7). This feature can be seen in the radiographs of numerous other works by the artist,13Similar radio-transparent lines have been observed in the radiographs of the following Poussin works: Holy Family on the Steps (1648; Cleveland Museum of Art), Holy Family (1640–1642; Detroit Institute of Arts), and Holy Family with Ten Figures (1649; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin). See Carol Sawyer, assisted by Marcia Steele, “Poussin’s Holy Family on the Steps: New Technical Discoveries, Comparisons, and the Washington Copy,” Cleveland Studies in the History of Art 4, (1999): 142n23. although for Bacchus, these radio-transparent lines do not exist at all four perimeters, nor are they equidistant from the painting edges. Additionally, cusping patterns are pronounced on the left and right, while diminished along the bottom edge, and missing at the top.14The cusping is visible in the radiograph but was also verified by canvas weave automation. Robert Erdmann and Richard C. Johnson, December 13, 2011, “Automated Canvas Examination: Poussin \ NAMA \ 31-94,” unpublished report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, no. 31-94. The varied positions of radio-transparent lines and intensities of cusping suggest that the dimensions of Bacchus may have been cropped on all four sides with a greater reduction in the overall height of the painting. Another possibility, however, is that the Bacchus canvas was obtained from a much larger, stretched and primed canvas, as demonstrated by Extreme Unction (1638-40; FitzWilliam Museum, University of Cambridge), which retains its original tacking margins and has radio-transparent lines on only two of its perimeter edges.15Helen Glanville, “‘De lumine et umbra’—theory and practice, material and perception, in the paintings of Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665)” (PhD diss., Department of Art History, University of La Sapienza, Rome, forthcoming).

Poussin’s working method, as described by his biographers, was a painstaking process that involved a number of steps before paint was applied to canvas: quick sketches to develop the initial compositional concept; studies of illuminated wax models, often with additions of wet paper or fabric to simulate drapery; further sketching of live models; and pen and ink drawings.16See Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The Andrew W. Mellon Lectures in Fine Arts, 1958 (London: Phaidon Press Ltd, 1967), 1:242–44. See also Diane DeGrazia and Marcia Steele, “The ‘Grande Machine,’” Cleveland Studies in the History of Art 4 (1999): 64–67. For the artist’s most complicated figural arrangements, like that of Bacchus, Antoine Le Blond de la Tour (1635–1706) described the artist’s use of a partially-enclosed box with a small aperture at the front that allowed Poussin to view the wax models on a gridded board in perspective scale, to explore the effects of light and shade, and to assess the overall composition.17DeGrazia and Steele, Cleveland Studies, 65–66.,18According to Joachim von Sandrart (1606–1688), Poussin began using this method of placing the wax figures on a gridded board around 1630. Konrad Oberhuber et al., Poussin, the Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism, exh. cat. (New York: Hudson Hills, 1988), 208.

Fig. 9. On the left, radiograph detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636); on the right, an overlay of the radiograph and normal illumination (desaturated) details, showing the position of the vanishing point at Hercules’ nose
Fig. 9. On the left, radiograph detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636); on the right, an overlay of the radiograph and normal illumination (desaturated) details, showing the position of the vanishing point at Hercules’ nose
Fig. 9. On the left, radiograph detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636); on the right, an overlay of the radiograph and normal illumination (desaturated) details, showing the position of the vanishing point at Hercules’ nose
Fig. 10. Diagram of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing key orthogonals passing through the vanishing point
Fig. 10. Diagram of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing key orthogonals passing through the vanishing point
Fig. 10. Diagram of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing key orthogonals passing through the vanishing point
The vanishing point of Bacchus is located on Hercules’ nose and aligns with the flat surfaces of the chariot. Covered by later paint applications, the small hole where the ground and canvas were pierced (3 millimeters in diameter) is evident in the radiograph (Fig. 9). A vertical line passing through this point meets Apollo’s eyes, while a horizontal line through this point intersects with a number of the procession revelers, traversing the eyes of Silenus (standing behind Cupid), the nymph who peeks over Hercules’ club, the trumpeter, until punctuated by the rightmost bacchante who turns her gaze back toward the center of the painting (Fig. 10). Bacchus, the female centaur, as well as the river god and putto at the lower corners turn their gaze toward the vanishing point.19Similarly, technical study of The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Saint Elizabeth (1650–1651; Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Cambridge, MA) has shown that the gazes of all figures, with the exception of the lower left putto, are directed toward the vanishing point. Rikke Foulke, “The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Saint Elizabeth,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 90. Orthogonal lines radiating from this location match the angle of the centaur’s torso and an upper left tree branch and intersect with Apollo in the sky, the centaur’s raised torch, and the pinecone tip of the thyrsusthyrsus: A staff or spear with an ornamental tip, such as a pinecone, that would be carried by Bacchic revelers..20Avigdor Arikha has shown that incised lines in the paint of The Rape of the Sabines (ca. 1637–1638; Musée du Louvre, Paris) radiate from a “point of harmony.” See Avigdor Arikha, Nicolas Poussin: The Rape of the Sabines, exh. cat., (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1983), 28–32.

Fig. 11. Detail of the river god, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing an incised line that passes through his ear and jawline
Fig. 11. Detail of the river god, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing an incised line that passes through his ear and jawline
Like many works by Poussin, there are numerous short incisions made in the wet ground that are visible to the naked eye, some of which appear to have been used to position the figures (Fig. 11). A few incisions, like the inscribed “X” at the nape of the rightmost bacchante’s neck (Fig. 12) and a similar feature on Apollo’s raised hand (Fig. 13), may correspond to a geometric framework, although many of these marks were likely covered by the artist’s paint. In her forthcoming research, Helen Glanville has identified an underlying “divine geometry” in Bacchus, a concept rooted in classical antiquity and the scriptures, as well as manuscripts of the period, specifically those of Matteo Zaccolini (1574–1630). In one geometric construction, she proposes that Poussin connected many of the figures (heavenly and earthly) in a large ellipse that surrounds the Bacchic revelers and passes through the “X” of the rightmost figure.21Helen Glanville, “"De lumine et umbra"—theory and practice, material and perception, in the paintings of Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665),” (forthcoming).

Fig. 12. Photomicrograph with slightly raking light, revealing an incised “X” at the right bacchante’s neck, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 12. Photomicrograph with slightly raking light, revealing an incised “X” at the right bacchante’s neck, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 13. Detail of Apollo with an incised mark on his raised hand (partially covered by retouching), Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 13. Detail of Apollo with an incised mark on his raised hand (partially covered by retouching), Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
No underdrawingunderdrawing: A drawn or painted sketch beneath the paint layer. The underdrawing can be made from dry materials, such as graphite or charcoal, or wet materials, such as ink or paint. is detected with infrared reflectographyinfrared reflectography (IRR): A form of infrared imaging that exploits the behavior of painting materials at wavelengths beyond those accessible to infrared photography. These advantages sometimes include a continuing increase in the transparency of pigments beyond wavelengths accessible to infrared photography (i.e, beyond 1,000 nanometers), rendering underdrawing more clearly. The resulting image is called an infrared reflectogram. Devices that came into common use in the 1980s such as the infrared vidicon effectively revealed these features but suffered from lack of sharpness and uneven response. Vidicons continue to be used out to 2,200 nanometers but several newer pixelated detectors including indium gallium arsenide and indium antimonide array detectors offer improvements. All of these devices are optimally used with filters constraining their response to those parts of the infrared spectrum that reveal the most within the constraints of the palette used for a given painting. They can be used for transmitted light imaging as well as in reflection., although a few finely-painted dark brown strokes outline drapery in a sparsely painted area between Cupid’s legs (Fig. 14). Poussin initially constructed many of the figures with an underpaintingunderpainting: The first applications of paint that begin to block in color and loosely define the compositional elements. Also called ébauche. of thin brown washeswash: An application of thin paint that has been diluted with solvent. and opaque shades of brown, gray, and beige. Many of these layers remain visible in the final painting, as illustrated in Figure 15, where the underlying brown wash forms the shadows of the trumpeter’s cheek, nose, eyes, and forehead. The use of the colored ground enables this construction, which would not be possible with the thin brown wash atop a reflective white ground. The figures were further developed with additions of opaque pink and peach, applied in a fluid manner with a narrow brush and confident, painterly handling (Fig. 16). Gradual transitions exist between the highlights, midtones, and shadows with less pronounced brushwork. Throughout the figures, glimpses of the cool gray-brown underpainting are contrasted by the intense, warm pink of the flushed cheeks, accents on the facial features, and contouring strokes (Fig. 17). Fine touches of pale green, like those on Hercules’ fingernails (Fig. 18) and near the eyes of the river god and trumpeter (Figs. 11 and 15), accent many of the figures.22This aspect of Poussin’s technique was first documented in the 1999 technical study of The Holy Family on the Steps (1648; Cleveland Museum of Art). See Sawyer, assisted by Steele, “Poussin’s Holy Family on the Steps: New Technical Discoveries, Comparisons, and the Washington Copy,” 122. Using short curving strokes and wet-over-wetwet-over-wet: An oil painting technique which involves drawing a stroke of one color across the wet paint of another color. applications, Poussin produced the convincing fur of the spotted animal pelt, whereas the curls of the centaur’s beard were dryly painted (Figs. 19 and 20).

Fig. 14. Detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing finely painted brown lines near Cupid’s leg
Fig. 14. Detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing finely painted brown lines near Cupid’s leg
Fig. 14. Detail of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing finely painted brown lines near Cupid’s leg
Fig. 15. Detail of the central trumpeter, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 15. Detail of the central trumpeter, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 15. Detail of the central trumpeter, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 16. Detail of the river god’s forearm, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). Finely painted strokes of pink highlight and define the musculature.
Fig. 16. Detail of the river god’s forearm, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). Finely painted strokes of pink highlight and define the musculature.
Fig. 16. Detail of the river god’s forearm, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). Finely painted strokes of pink highlight and define the musculature.
Fig. 17. Details of the leftmost bacchante’s face and upraised hand, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 17. Details of the leftmost bacchante’s face and upraised hand, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 17. Details of the leftmost bacchante’s face and upraised hand, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 18. Photomicrograph of green highlights on Hercules’ fingernails, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 18. Photomicrograph of green highlights on Hercules’ fingernails, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 18. Photomicrograph of green highlights on Hercules’ fingernails, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 19. Detail of the wet-into-wet paint strokes of the spotted animal pelt, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 19. Detail of the wet-into-wet paint strokes of the spotted animal pelt, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 19. Detail of the wet-into-wet paint strokes of the spotted animal pelt, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Underlying pink paint associated with the river god’s leg confirms that he was initially rendered as a nude figure, before the green drapery was painted on top.23The authors thank Helen Glanville for pointing out the unclothed construction of the river god. Other examples of this technique include Landscape during a Thunderstorm with Pyramus and Thisbe (1651; Städel Museum, Frankfurt), Venus Presenting her Arms to Aeneas (1639; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen), and The Crossing of the Red Sea (1632–1634; National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne). See Helen Glanville, “Nicolas Poussin: Creation and Perception,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 20, 22; Laurie Benson and Carl Villis, “The Crossing of the Red Sea in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 63–64. Similarly, the figure of the rightmost bacchante was complete before her blue robe was depicted, as revealed in the infrared reflectograminfrared reflectogram: An infrared image captured with an electronic infrared imager, typically in the 1000-2500 nanometer range. See Infrared reflectography. (Fig. 21).

Fig. 20. Detail of the dryly painted, wet-over-dry brushwork of the centaur’s beard, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 20. Detail of the dryly painted, wet-over-dry brushwork of the centaur’s beard, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 20. Detail of the dryly painted, wet-over-dry brushwork of the centaur’s beard, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 21. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, of the rightmost bacchante showing the textures and opacity of the charcoal underlayer beneath the ultramarine blue robe. Her thighs are visible in silhouette through the robe layers, indicating that she was initially painted nude.
Fig. 21. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, of the rightmost bacchante showing the textures and opacity of the charcoal underlayer beneath the ultramarine blue robe. Her thighs are visible in silhouette through the robe layers, indicating that she was initially painted nude.
Fig. 21. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, of the rightmost bacchante showing the textures and opacity of the charcoal underlayer beneath the ultramarine blue robe. Her thighs are visible in silhouette through the robe layers, indicating that she was initially painted nude.
A radio-transparent passage at the upper left of the radiograph (Fig. 7) reveals that, in the early stages of blocking out the sky, the trees were left in reservereserve: An area of the composition left unpainted with the intention of inserting a feature at a later stage in the painting process.. These elements were painted directly on top of the beige ground, which remains visible where the edges of the trees meet the sky. The gray-blue central clouds were painted with zigzagging strokes, and streaks in the fluid paint reveal the movement and direction of the brush. Thin, streaky dark brown paint was applied to the foreground with loose horizontal strokes, followed by additions of opaque paint that define the foliage, rocks, edge of the river, and other foreground elements.

Fig. 22. Photomicrograph of two tiny holes on the chariot wheel, partially filled with wax from the lining process, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 22. Photomicrograph of two tiny holes on the chariot wheel, partially filled with wax from the lining process, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 22. Photomicrograph of two tiny holes on the chariot wheel, partially filled with wax from the lining process, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 23. Photomicrograph, green paint beneath the right sky of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 23. Photomicrograph, green paint beneath the right sky of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 23. Photomicrograph, green paint beneath the right sky of Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fine lines, drawn through the wet paint with a sharply-pointed tool, mark straight lines on the chariot, the handle of the wreath-adorned spear, the legs of Hercules’ tripod, and the handle of the thyrsus. Poussin used a sharply-pointed instrument, perhaps a drafting compass, to mark the circular shapes of the chariot wheels, leaving two pinholes on each wheel (one at the center and one on the inner circle) that are visible with normal illumination (Fig. 22) and radiography.

Despite Poussin’s thorough preparatory process, a number of significant artist changes can be identified on Bacchus.24The presence of these significant compositional changes further validates the authenticity of Bacchus, since it would be highly unusual for a copyist to take liberties with primary components of Poussin’s composition. Green paint beneath the upper right sky corresponds to an early placement of trees that initially balanced those on the left (Fig. 23). The dark shape of this tree grouping is faintly visible in the reflected infrared digital photographreflected infrared digital photograph: An infrared image produced in the 700–1000 nanometer range, typically captured using an infrared-modified digital camera. See infrared photography. of Figure 24, extending 37 centimeters toward the center of the painting. Poussin’s shift away from a symmetrical border of trees is significant when compared to Pan and Silenus, for as Christopher Wright observed, “all three [Richelieu] compositions are set against a tree-filled landscape where the trunks form elaborate patterns except in The Triumph of Bacchus where they only occupy the left hand part of the background.”25Christopher Wright, Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné (London: Harlequin Books, 1985), 53. Infrared imaging also reveals that a highly reflective garment once draped across the trumpeter’s body, and his shoulder and arm were repositioned three times. In one adjustment, his raised arm suspended red drapery above his proper left shoulder (Fig. 25). The garment can be inferred to have been painted with vermilion, based on this infrared behavior and the red hue that has emerged as aging of the overlying paint has increased its transparency. Additionally, this figure’s dramatic serpent horn was initially a much simpler instrument with a flared end, similar to the trumpet depicted on the left side of Pan, with a strap or ribbon hanging below it. Infrared imaging also reveals that the rightmost female once held a staff with an oval-shaped tip, perhaps a second thyrsus, that was modified to become a branch (Fig. 26).

Fig. 24. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail of the upper right sky, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 24. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail of the upper right sky, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 24. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail of the upper right sky, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 25. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, detail of changes made to the trumpeter’s shoulder and his musical instrument, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 25. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, detail of changes made to the trumpeter’s shoulder and his musical instrument, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 25. Infrared reflectogram captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, detail of changes made to the trumpeter’s shoulder and his musical instrument, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 26. Infrared reflectogram of the rightmost bacchante, captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). A pinecone-tipped thyrsus initially depicted in her right hand was replaced in the final composition with a vine branch.
Fig. 26. Infrared reflectogram of the rightmost bacchante, captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). A pinecone-tipped thyrsus initially depicted in her right hand was replaced in the final composition with a vine branch.
Fig. 26. Infrared reflectogram of the rightmost bacchante, captured between 1.5-1.7 microns, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). A pinecone-tipped thyrsus initially depicted in her right hand was replaced in the final composition with a vine branch.
Fig. 27. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail showing the original placement of Cupid’s quiver, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 27. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail showing the original placement of Cupid’s quiver, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 27. Reflected infrared digital photograph captured between 850-1000nm, detail showing the original placement of Cupid’s quiver, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 28. Detail of the lower left putto, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). The curving wheel of the chariot provides some opacity to the putto’s profile and gives an indication of its original appearance without interference from the dark foreground. Paint abrasion has disrupted the subtle transitions of the thinly painted figure and exacerbated the influence of the dark underlying paint.
Fig. 28. Detail of the lower left putto, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636). The curving wheel of the chariot provides some opacity to the putto’s profile and gives an indication of its original appearance without interference from the dark foreground. Paint abrasion has disrupted the subtle transitions of the thinly painted figure and exacerbated the influence of the dark underlying paint.
Pentimentipentimento (pl: pentimenti): A change to the composition made by the artist that is visible on the paint surface. Often with time, pentimenti become more visible as the upper layers of paint become more transparent with age. Italian for "repentance" or "a change of mind." reveal that Cupid’s quiver was originally placed along his proper left side (Fig. 27); two ribbons once hung from either side of the wreath above Silenus’ head; both feet of the rightmost bacchante clad in orange were initially higher, and rather than the “V” shape visible today, her garment once curved across her proper right thigh. The pronounced curvature of the chariot wheel and dark foreground colors are visible beneath the lower left putto (Fig. 28) and overturned pitcher, indicating that these elements were introduced at a later stage of painting without the use of a reserve.26The authors are grateful to Helen Glanville who observed that the vase was painted on top of the dark foreground during a joint examination of Bacchus in 2014. Numerous minor areas of repositioning or adjustment are evident among the drapery and figures. The pentimento of a tree branch on the center left appears to have been misinterpreted and strengthened with retouchingretouching: Paint application by a conservator or restorer to cover losses and unify the original composition. Retouching is an aspect of conservation treatment that is aesthetic in nature and that differs from more limited procedures undertaken solely to stabilize original material. Sometimes referred to as inpainting or retouch. (now discolored); the branch does not appear to have been visible early on, as it was excluded from the copy of The Triumph of Bacchus (pre 1800; Victoria and Albert Museum).27The authors thank Ana Debenedetti, assistant curator, paintings and drawings, for information related to their copy of The Triumph of Bacchus (pre-1800; The Victoria and Albert Museum, London).

Poussin’s Choice of Pigments

At the first level of scrutiny, the palette study entailed identifying which pigments were used and which were excluded from among those available to Poussin in the early seventeenth century. At a deeper level, we wished to know the roles played by the pigments in their different combinations and to learn, where possible, how those roles have changed due to aging effects, altering the painting’s appearance. As shown below, iron earth pigments (naturally-occurring mineral mixtures in which iron plays a critical role in the color) are used in abundance throughout all of the paints. In addition, the iron earths used by Poussin in Bacchus are extremely diverse in both color and mineral type. When these complex mixtures are blended with each other, and diluted by lead whitelead white: The most widely used white pigment from Roman times until well into the industrial period, it consists of cerussite and/or hydrocerussite, mineral names for neutral lead carbonate and basic lead carbonate, respectively. Plumbonacrite, another basic lead carbonate with proportionately less carbonate than hydrocerussite, can sometimes be found, as well. The whitest forms used in painting were historically produced by inducing lead metal to corrode in the presence of vinegar fumes., their identification and understanding the roles they play in the appearance of the painting become extremely challenging.

There is an additional challenging aspect to the study of Poussin’s palette created by his deeply philosophical approach to painting.28An approach that was not always attuned to his patron’s expectations; see Helen Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Triumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae 37 (74) (2016): 241–54. In keeping with the debates of his peers and early modern attempts to create a framework of thought uniting perspective, atmospheric/optical effects, and material properties with humankind’s relationship to nature and the cosmos, he is thought to have incorporated small amounts of certain pigments for reasons unconnected with their practical performance in the paint.29H. Glanville, H. Rousselière, L. De Viguerie, and Ph. Walter, “Mens Agitat Molem: New Insights into Nicolas Poussin’s Painting Technique by X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Analyses,” in Science and Art: The Painted Surface, ed. Antonio Sgamellotti, Brunetto Giovanni Brunetti, and Costanza Miliani (London: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014), 314–35. In short, we do not know in some cases whether small additions of material with a limited influence on appearance were purposeful or not. Poussin may have included small amounts of certain pigments because they “belonged” there, in his worldview, whether they had a practical impact or not.

The distinctive traits of Poussin’s work lie in the idiosyncrasies of his use of otherwise common materials. In some cases, these may reflect an underlying procedural philosophy unique to Poussin. It is in the identification of variants among similar materials available in his day, combinations used for his specific effects, and changes wrought on those materials by his preparation procedures, that one could expect to discover new characteristics of the artist’s use of materials.

To obtain the most concise information possible about highly dispersed individual pigment grains, a heavy reliance has been placed upon elemental analysis of individual pigment particles using electron beam-excited x-ray spectrometryelectron-beam-excited X-ray spectrometry (sometimes referred to as XES for “X-ray energy spectrometry” or EDX for “energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry”): An analytical technique used for the identification of elements without regard to their state of combination. The underlying principle of X-ray spectrometry is the same as that of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF): individual elements can be induced to emit unique identifying X-rays. When used during examination of a sample in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), it offers several profound advantages over in-situ analysis with the handheld unit or XRF elemental mapping spectrometer. Electron beam excitation in the SEM favors the response of light elements including even carbon and oxygen. Also, the extreme localization of the electron beam exciting the response allows individual pigment particles to be analyzed in complicated mixtures while simultaneously revealing particle shapes. For example, the presence of both lead and chromium in a single rod-like particle differentiates it as chrome yellow from the case of viridian merely mixed with lead white, where chromium (oxide) and lead (carbonate) occur in separate particles. in the scanning electron microscope (SEM)scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Performed on a microsample of paint, the SEM provides a means of studying particle shapes beyond the magnification limits of the light microscope. This becomes increasingly important with the painting materials introduced in the early modern era, which are finer and more diverse than traditional artists’ materials. The SEM is routinely used in conjunction with an X-ray spectrometer, so that elemental identifications can be made selectively on the same minute scale as the electron beam producing the images. SEM methods are particularly valuable in studying unstable pigments, adverse interactions between incompatible pigments, and interactions between pigments and surrounding paint medium, all of which can have profound effects on the appearance of a painting., and the correlation of these results to optical properties and RamanRaman spectroscopy: A microanalytical technique applicable primarily to pigments and minerals, differentiating them based on both chemical bonding and crystal structure, often with extremely high sensitivity for individual particles. For example, traditional indigo and synthetic phthalocyanine blue are both carbon compounds not well differentiated by other methods utilized here, especially when used dilutely. However, they give unique Raman spectra. Calcium carbonates derived from chalk or pulverized oyster shell of identical chemical compositions can be differentiated based on their crystal structures (calcite and aragonite, respectively). spectra.30Samples were prepared in two ways: as embedded cross sections and as fracture sections presented to the instrument without further preparation, apart from a conductive coating of evaporated carbon. Cross-comparisons have been made with optical microscopy and UV fluorescence microscopy, with a few confirmatory identifications carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) has then been used to correlate differences in color and optical properties with individual pigment species. PLM has been especially important in disclosing differences among the green iron earths which share overlapping elemental compositions. The formal cross sections often provide a clearer view of the sequence of paint applications, while the fracture fragments often reveal pigment alteration and texture features more clearly. As others have noted, the dry, fresco-like appearance favored by Poussin often entailed using paints with a slight deficit of oil medium, resulting in samples that can be brittle and difficult to prepare for analysis. Pigments identified in the ground and paint layers are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. List of pigments identified on Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Table 1. List of pigments identified on Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)

Construction and Materials of the Double Ground

The colored ground plays an important visual role in the painting by influencing the tonality of overlying paints, some of which were never entirely opaque and which have become less so as a result of aging. The visible role of the ground is especially notable in setting the base color in the shadows of the river god’s green drapery (Fig. 29). Aging effects in the ground strata, therefore, have an impact on ways in which the present-day appearance of the painting differs from when it left the studio. Knowing that the ground played a visual role under certain colors, and that this role might have needed to be suppressed or modified under others, we sought to locate intermediate paint applications such as washes or underpainting layers. Several cross sections contain the ground layers while others were taken exclusively to characterize the overlying paint.

Fig. 29. Detail of the green drapery below the river god’s knee where the darkest green was sampled (center), exemplifying Poussin’s use of the warm-toned ground, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)
Fig. 29. Detail of the green drapery below the river god’s knee where the darkest green was sampled (center), exemplifying Poussin’s use of the warm-toned ground, Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636)

Prior investigators studying numbers of works by Poussin have taken an approach distinct from ours by quantifying the average major element concentrations in their grounds using electron-beam-excited X-ray spectrometry performed in the scanning electron microscope. Alain Duval included nine works by Poussin that he presented in this context of broader seventeenth- and eighteenth-century painting practice.31A. Duval, “Les préparations colorées des tableaux de l’École Française des dix-septième et dix-huitième siècles,” Studies in Conservation 37 (1992): 239–58. By working from cross sections, he bypassed complicating factors that are inherent to non-sampling methods for the analysis of superimposed layers, methodology that, in any case, was in its infancy at that time. However, a series of assumptions about how to allocate the responses for individual elements are required in his approach. For example, lead can exist in particulate form as lead white or red lead pigments and simultaneously as lead dissolved in the medium where it functions as a drier, or siccative, for oil.32Duval commented upon the difficulty of distinguishing fine-grained red lead when its color cannot be distinguished from other reds in a colored ground mixture. Our own tests have confirmed the use of fine red lead as a minor component of the grounds in Bacchus and the attendant difficulty of locating it.

In a subsequent paper, Duval presented the results of this experimental protocol for the grounds of 26 works by Poussin.33A. Duval, “Les enduits de préparation des tableaux de Nicolas Poussin,” Techné 1 (1994): 35–41. He classified the ground layers into three types based on color and dominant elemental composition. He defined these classes as ferrugineous soils, ochres, and iron oxides, based upon their proportions of alumina, silica, and iron. With a single painting and no direct access to that body of data, our approach has been descriptive, rather than classifying, and focused on the individual constituents of the ground. In addition, we have observed that some constituents of the ground also play important roles in the upper paint layers. It should be borne in mind that a dark ground layer may contain the sediment collected from washing brushes whose color is overwhelmed by the dark earth minerals. In that case, minor amounts of costly or specialized pigments may not be indicative of purposeful additions to the ground.

The lower, ruddy ground in Bacchus is comprised mostly of earth pigments with a low content of lead white (Fig. 8).34Pigment species confirmed in the lower, dark ground include quartz, sodium feldspar, fine hematite (red ochre) and goethite (yellow ochre), ferrous silica, light green iron earth with undulose optical extinction, iron-magnesium aluminosilicates (green earth), and discolored medium with minor cinnabar, red lead, calcium carbonate, lead white, lead soap alteration products, potassium clay or mica, red lake on alumina, gypsum, bone black, and chromite traces. One example of a large red agglomerate containing calcium-potassium sulfate along with iron oxides points to a possible origin for the iron earth in a jarosite (potassium iron sulfate) formation. The upper beige ground consists of lead white tinted by yellow, orange, red, and black pigments, including several forms of hydrated iron oxides, and traces of vermilion, red lead, and charcoal.35Pigment species confirmed in the upper beige ground through SEM elemental analysis include lead white, quartz (some of it splintered and unworn), potassium feldspar, sodium feldspar, sodium-potassium feldspar, coarse hydrated iron oxide, ferrous silica grains, lead soap alteration products, calcite, very fine goethite (yellow ochre), and minor amounts of coarse red lake, clay, cinnabar, charcoal, and more rarely, ultramarine, gypsum, and potassium-calcium sulfate. Lead white pigment particles in the beige ground vary markedly in shape, size, and crystal forms. Their size variation is extreme, ranging from less than one micron to over 50 microns in diameter. Among the coarse lead white grains there are both agglomerates of fine crystals and coarse, splintery fragments of individual crystals intermingled with finely-ground and highly-dispersed ones. Recent research has shown that lead white in these differing size ranges has often been refined by differing procedures, with the finest grades resulting from washing and levigation, leading to different proportions of its two main compounds: cerussite and hydrocerussite.36V. Gonzalez, G. Wallez, T. Calligaro, M. Cotte, W. De Nolf, and M. Eveno, “Synchrotron-based high angle resolution and high lateral resolution X-ray diffraction: Revealing lead white pigment qualities in old masters paintings,” Analytical Chemistry 89 no. 24 (2017): 13203–11.

Fig. 30. A) Cross section of Bacchus’ elbow, including the upper beige ground and two nearly indistinguishable strata of the flesh color containing abundant vermilion, the first of which has been annotated with guide marks. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Backscatter electron image. Scale bar is 40 microns. The orange ferrous silica grain analyzed in the beige ground is exceptionally high in iron and was the only example that yielded a Raman spectrum (not shown) for the hydrated iron oxide mineral goethite. The beige ground in this location contains numerous coarse grains of lead white in two varieties whose optical reflectivity and atomic number brightness both differ. Raman spectra of these two coarse-grained classes, which occur throughout the painting, fall cleanly into categories correlating closely to reference standards for cerussite and hydrocerrusite from the RRUFF database as shown on the right.
Fig. 30. A) Cross section of Bacchus’ elbow, including the upper beige ground and two nearly indistinguishable strata of the flesh color containing abundant vermilion, the first of which has been annotated with guide marks. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Backscatter electron image. Scale bar is 40 microns. The orange ferrous silica grain analyzed in the beige ground is exceptionally high in iron and was the only example that yielded a Raman spectrum (not shown) for the hydrated iron oxide mineral goethite. The beige ground in this location contains numerous coarse grains of lead white in two varieties whose optical reflectivity and atomic number brightness both differ. Raman spectra of these two coarse-grained classes, which occur throughout the painting, fall cleanly into categories correlating closely to reference standards for cerussite and hydrocerrusite from the RRUFF database as shown on the right.
In Bacchus, coarse grains that have not undergone refinement include internal microstructures retained from their “Dutch” production process of corroding lead plates with acetic acid vapor. Some grains with large internal subdivisions appear more translucent than their neighbors of similar size when those neighbors consist of fine interlocking grains or compact agglomerates of unconnected particles. Raman spectroscopy carried out on coarser grains in the ground and paints revealed that they fall into two distinct classes with different Raman spectra (Fig. 30) corresponding to cerussite and hydrocerussite that has been transformed from plumbonacrite during its production.37Raman spectra of these two coarse-grained classes, which occur throughout the painting, fall cleanly into categories correlating closely to reference standards for cerussite and hydrocerrusite in the RRUFF database as shown on the right of Figure 30. RRUFF id #s R040069 and R070059, respectively, https://rruff.info/about/about_general.php (accessed 9-18-21). B. Lafuente , R.T. Downs, H. Yang, and N. Stone, “The power of databases: the RRUFF project,” in Highlights in Mineralogical Crystallography, ed. T. Armbruster and R. M. Danisi (Berlin: W. De Gruyter, 2015), 1–30. The hydrocerussite that matches most closely differs from other natural history specimens in the RRUFF compilation in being a pseudomorph after plumbonacrite. Recent work on details of the Dutch process for lead white production show that plumbonacrite is usually a short-lived intermediate that transforms to hydrocerussite in the final product, accounting for this distinction in the pigment. Therefore, it appears that lead whites of differing coarseness and qualities, some refined more than others, were intentionally combined with an objective that remains obscure today.

Construction and Materials of the Blue Robe

Brightly colored garments needed to be free of influence from the color of the beige upper ground and usually employ an intermediate layer. For the blue robe of the rightmost bacchante, this entailed the use of charcoal to create a more neutral base for this semi-transparent color. Five cross sections near the right side of the painting demonstrate that the blue-draped bacchante was left in reserve when the brown background was painted. The blue is underlain by a layer consisting mostly of coarse charcoal in lead white, whose thickness varies in response to the depth of blue color required at that point. The charcoal underlayer dominates the appearance of the robe in the infrared reflectogram, showing variations in its application (Fig. 21). The wide distribution in size of lead white grains seen in the upper ground is also characteristic of lead white in the black underlayer paint.

Fig. 31. A) Cross section from the blue robe shadow including the upper beige ground and all subsequent layers, showing the use of a thick layer of coarse charcoal and lead white as a base tone beneath the top layer of ultramarine, lead white, and charcoal. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Ultraviolet autofluorescence that better differentiates the components of the blue layer. C) Backscatter electron image. Scale bar is 20 microns. A coarse grain of brown-black material corresponds to umber, with an excess of manganese over iron shown in the elemental analysis, used to further darken the base tone.
Fig. 31. A) Cross section from the blue robe shadow including the upper beige ground and all subsequent layers, showing the use of a thick layer of coarse charcoal and lead white as a base tone beneath the top layer of ultramarine, lead white, and charcoal. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Ultraviolet autofluorescence that better differentiates the components of the blue layer. C) Backscatter electron image. Scale bar is 20 microns. A coarse grain of brown-black material corresponds to umber, with an excess of manganese over iron shown in the elemental analysis, used to further darken the base tone.
Testing revealed this preliminary application to be a thick black coat of charcoal and lead white with traces of lead-tin yellow and iron oxide. Traces of umber in its thickest shadow applications include coarse examples of deep brown manganese oxides (Fig. 31). The blue robe itself is based on lead white with ultramarine. A thin surface deposit of grayed calcium carbonate and gypsum impacts its appearance. Outside the shadow, the preliminary application contains more lead white than charcoal, followed by a top layer of lead white and ultramarine containing traces of vermilion and red ochre. The natural ultramarine of the top layer is mixed with lead white of uniformly fine particle size in accordance with the depth of color required, with some areas containing virtually pure ultramarine.

Construction and Materials of the Peach Scarf

Bright glazes are evident in the shadows of the drapery and important for the peach-colored scarf swirling around the left arm of the rightmost bacchante. Unlike the blue garment, the scarf was painted over the brown background rather than left in reserve. It owes its color primarily to a yellow lake pigment prepared on a base of alumina and contains a high proportion of non-particulate lead in the medium, with few, and widely-dispersed, fine grains of lead white. The construction of the scarf near the shoulder entailed a yellow-brown underlayer of lead-tin yellow particles whose lead and tin proportions vary greatly, containing lead soap and lead chloride alteration products, cinnabar, lead white, alumina lake, and iron oxides. Uppermost is a yellow-brown layer containing yellow lake on alumina with a thin alteration layer of lead sulfate and lead potassium sulfate. The scarf has been thinned by abrasionabrasion: A loss of surface material due to rubbing, scraping, frequent touching, or inexpert solvent cleaning. and prior cleanings so that these alteration products, typically consisting of anglesite and palmierite, can be inferred to have developed subsequent to some prior cleaning. These species are widely encountered on painted surfaces, formed from the interaction of lead, sulfate, and potassium ions.38A. van Loon, P. Noble, and J. J. Boon, “White hazes and surface crusts in Rembrandt’s Homer and related paintings,” ICOM-CC Lisbon 2011: Preprints 16th triennial conference Lisbon, 19–23 September 2011, 1–10.,39Stephen W. T. Price, Annelies Van Loon, Katrien Keune, Aaron D. Parsons, Claire Murray, Andrew M. Beale, and J. Fred W. Mosselmans, “Unravelling the spatial dependency of the complex solid-state chemistry of Pb in a paint micro-sample from Rembrandt’s Homer using XRD-CT,” Chemical Communications 55 (2019): 1931–34.,40Steven De Meyer, Frederik Vanmeert, Rani Vertongen, Annelies van Loon, Victor Gonzalez, Geert van der Snickt, Abbie Vandivere, and Koen Janssens, “Imaging secondary reaction products at the surface of Vermeer’s Girl with the Pearl Earring by means of macroscopic X‑ray powder diffraction scanning,” Heritage Science 7, no. 1 (2019): 1–11.

Fig. 32. A) Cross section from the peach-colored scarf near the bacchante’s left hand, including the upper beige ground and all subsequent layers. The layers comprising the scarf are poorly resolved from the brown background layer. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Ultraviolet autofluorescence shows that the scarf is comprised of three uneven layers atop the background color, the first and last of which contain large amounts of yellow lake pigment. Coarse lead white occurs in the first layer along with the lake but lead white is largely absent from the top layer. The nonfluorescent intermediate layer contains abundant earth pigments that function with the lake layers to give depth and opacity. C) Backscatter electron image showing the distribution of lead white in the various layers and a thin deposit of lead alteration products on top. Scale bar is 20 microns. Elemental analyses at the locations shown demonstrate that the lake is based on alumina and that the alteration skin covering it is comprised of lead-potassium sulfate compounds. The composition of a large translucent green grain among the earth pigments in the scarf is typical for one class that occurs throughout the green passages of the painting but might not have been expected to play a role in the bright peach color.
Fig. 32. A) Cross section from the peach-colored scarf near the bacchante’s left hand, including the upper beige ground and all subsequent layers. The layers comprising the scarf are poorly resolved from the brown background layer. Reflected light with crossed polars. B) Ultraviolet autofluorescence shows that the scarf is comprised of three uneven layers atop the background color, the first and last of which contain large amounts of yellow lake pigment. Coarse lead white occurs in the first layer along with the lake but lead white is largely absent from the top layer. The nonfluorescent intermediate layer contains abundant earth pigments that function with the lake layers to give depth and opacity. C) Backscatter electron image showing the distribution of lead white in the various layers and a thin deposit of lead alteration products on top. Scale bar is 20 microns. Elemental analyses at the locations shown demonstrate that the lake is based on alumina and that the alteration skin covering it is comprised of lead-potassium sulfate compounds. The composition of a large translucent green grain among the earth pigments in the scarf is typical for one class that occurs throughout the green passages of the painting but might not have been expected to play a role in the bright peach color.
A second sample taken from the segment of the scarf between the left hand and buttock, where the underlying layers are more complicated, exhibits the same surface alteration phenomenon. The surface layer affects the scarf as a whole and is related to the formulation of the lake-rich top layer, which tests have shown contains some residual sulfate in the lake pigment. The layer also contains some small nodules of lead soaps that are the product of free fatty acids in the oil medium interacting with lead pigment. The construction of the scarf near the left hand entails three layers atop the brown background (Fig. 32). The brown background paint is rich in iron earths with calcite, lead white, and bone black. A thin, uneven application of coarse yellow lake with small amounts of iron oxides and lead-tin yellow forms the first layer of the scarf at this point. It was followed by paint rich in both green and orange iron earths, iron oxides, yellow lake, and relatively little lead white. The topmost layer is a glazeglaze: A transparent, oil or resin-rich paint application that influences the tonality of the underlying paint. containing yellow lake. The use of some coarse green earth in the middle stratum of the scarf is not obvious from its final color.

Construction and Materials of the Yellow-Orange Robe

The bright yellow-orange robe of the bacchante bearing the serpent on a staff was studied in two locations. The shoulder highlight was tested alone, and a sample of the flesh paint from below the raised hem that included the first version of the robe was studied stratigraphically. The first layer in the sample belongs to the skin beneath the former position of the robe, suggesting that like the river god and rightmost bacchante, the nude figure was painted and then draped. (The skin tones are discussed below.) The second stratum consists of the robe prior to the artist’s modifications of the hem. It consists of a single layer containing lead white, pale lead-tin yellow deficient in tin, and orange ferrous silica grains that are an essential part of many paints in Bacchus (Fig. 33). The highlights applied over this layer at the shoulder consist of lead-tin yellow type I.41Prior to, and during Poussin’s lifetime, lead-tin yellow was produced in two forms by calcining lead and tin oxides alone (designated Type I) and as a glassy material incorporating silica (Type II). Only type I occurs in Bacchus. During his career, the lead-antimony compound known as Naples yellow was beginning to replace the two varieties of lead-tin yellow, and Poussin employed it in some other works. However, Naples yellow was never encountered in Bacchus, either as a yellow pigment in its own right nor as a tinting pigment in mixtures.

Fig. 33. A) Cross section detail of the thigh of the bacchante bearing a serpent-staff, in the region where the hem has been raised, containing the preliminary yellow-orange drapery, reflected light with crossed polars. The section begins with a small amount of the first rendering of skin color, followed by the yellow robe (annotated by guide marks) and the exposed skin of the final version. B) Backscatter electron image showing the morphology of lead-tin yellow in the middle layer. Scale bar is 20 microns. The elemental composition of the bright orange ferrous silica (C) in the yellow layer is typical of one of the most widely used materials in this painting. The darker orange grain in the first skin application is darker and higher in iron (D) than most examples of this class but is also distinct from the red ochre used elsewhere. A coarse transparent fragment marked “X” was identified as glass based on its composition (E) and Raman spectrum (F).
Fig. 33. A) Cross section detail of the thigh of the bacchante bearing a serpent-staff, in the region where the hem has been raised, containing the preliminary yellow-orange drapery, reflected light with crossed polars. The section begins with a small amount of the first rendering of skin color, followed by the yellow robe (annotated by guide marks) and the exposed skin of the final version. B) Backscatter electron image showing the morphology of lead-tin yellow in the middle layer. Scale bar is 20 microns. The elemental composition of the bright orange ferrous silica (C) in the yellow layer is typical of one of the most widely used materials in this painting. The darker orange grain in the first skin application is darker and higher in iron (D) than most examples of this class but is also distinct from the red ochre used elsewhere. A coarse transparent fragment marked “X” was identified as glass based on its composition (E) and Raman spectrum (F).

Construction and Materials of the Flesh Tones

Flesh tones vary from the ruddy color of earthbound figures such as Pan and the trumpeter to the flushed, lifelike tones of the bacchantes and the highly luminous skin of Bacchus who, in the humanist circles to which both Poussin and Richelieu belonged, could be associated with Christ and Apollo, patron of the arts.42Helen Glanville, personal communication, September 23, 2021. Some flesh tones were constructed using the ground color as a base on which to apply highlights and shadows. For figures whose modeling is more gradual and subtle, an opaque color was mixed to be a skin midtone and then shaded with washes. While the skin tones represent some of the most fluid and uniform of the paints, they contain relatively large particles of brightly-colored pigments not quite visible at normal viewing distances. These include vermilion and ultramarine particles, large agglomerates of fine lead-tin yellow, and large green earth particles in both pale and deep green shades, as required to suggest the translucency of skin over musculature, without actually using a translucent paint (Fig. 34).43In addition to the coarse species identifiable on the top surface, polarized light microscopy of the pale flesh shows it to be preponderantly lead white colored by the same isotropic orange ferrous silica species widely employed throughout this painting, traces of fine charcoal, and fine vermilion. Shadows often employ thin, transparent applications of charcoal and additional vermilion.

Fig. 34. Left) Photomicrograph of Bacchus’ waist, showing coarse grains of vermilion, ultramarine, and green earth in the lustrous skin, 40x. Right) photomicrograph of the shin of the bacchante riding the centaur, showing coarse grains of ultramarine and vermilion, 35x.
Fig. 34. Left) Photomicrograph of Bacchus’ waist, showing coarse grains of vermilion, ultramarine, and green earth in the lustrous skin, 40x. Right) photomicrograph of the shin of the bacchante riding the centaur, showing coarse grains of ultramarine and vermilion, 35x.

Two skin samples from the yellow-robed, serpent-bearing bacchante were taken for comparison with that of Bacchus. The highlight flesh color of her thigh was sampled at the location previously described where the artist raised the hem by extending the paint of the thigh. The skin from the first position of the yellow-robed bacchante’s leg is represented by only a few grains in the sample, including lead white colored by lead-tin yellow, orange and deep-red ferrous silica grains (more fully described below) and small amounts of vermilion and red lead. Quartz and a coarse example of potash-soda-lime-silica glass were also found (Fig. 33). This glass was differentiated from mineral silicates by its distinctive Raman spectrum. The various types and uses of powdered glass in painting have been described by Lutzenberger, et al.44K. Lutzenberger, H. Stege, and C. Tilenschi, “A note on glass and silica in oil paintings from the 15th to the 17th century,” Journal of Cultural Heritage 11 (2010): 365–72. It may play a role in increasing the translucency of the skin color here. The final application of skin color is mostly lead white with greatly varying particle sizes, colored by lead-tin yellow, charcoal, natural ultramarine, yellow ochre, and traces of red ochre. It seems that the flesh color of this figure employs more lead-tin yellow to compensate for the intensity of the adjacent yellow robe and thereby maintain an optically harmonious overall appearance.

A darker, redder shade at the knee below this revision contains two, and possibly three layers, atop the beige ground. The first is a thin underlayer of orange comprised of vermilion in widely ranging particle sizes and a yellow iron earth. This is followed by a pink mixture based on lead white containing vermilion, with traces of ultramarine and umber. The deeper color of her knee relative to the skin of her lower leg employed an overlying wash containing very fine red ochre and yellow lake. Both flesh shades from this bacchante contain recognizable coarse particles of green earth in their surfaces, like those visible on the figure of Bacchus.

Fig. 35. Photomicrograph of Bacchus’ thigh (shadow area), Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing examples of transparent quartz fragments that occur sporadically in the paint surface, but which can also be found in the paint and ground layers. Scale bar 2mm.
Fig. 35. Photomicrograph of Bacchus’ thigh (shadow area), Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), showing examples of transparent quartz fragments that occur sporadically in the paint surface, but which can also be found in the paint and ground layers. Scale bar 2mm.
A cross section of the skin from Bacchus’s right arm at the transition to the elbow shadow shows that the flesh was painted directly atop the upper beige ground. The cross section contains two subtly different skin layers, probably applied wet-over-wet, atop the upper ground. The lower of these is about 18 microns in thickness and the upper about 12 microns (Fig. 30). By comparison with the skin of the yellow-robed bacchante, the proportion of vermilion is higher in both layers. The figure of Bacchus and his swirling vermilion cape are the most luminous areas of the infrared image and the visual focus of the painting. The vermilion of the skin is required for the skin tone to “read” properly against the vermilion cape, much as an increase in yellow is required for the skin tones of the bacchante offset by her yellow-orange robe. Both skin strata in Bacchus’ arm are very high in fine-grained lead white and each contains the orange ferrous silica. Traces of gypsum exist in the top layer and examples of yellow lake, calcite and ultramarine exist in the lower skin layer. Lead-tin yellow was not present in either layer at the point sampled from Bacchus’ arm but scattered agglomerates are visible in the paint surface nearby. Pigments adhering to a fragment of varnish from the elbow shadow transition show that the surface was darkened by a thin wash of charcoal grains and yellow ochre.

Fig. 36. Polarized light microscopy examples of dispersed green earth pigments from Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), in transmitted light. A) Fine-grained agglomerate of a strongly birefringent aquamarine type from the surface of the wreath leaf, partially crossed polars, 200x. B) Deep green, highly birefringent particles with splintery fracture in the rightmost dark tree trunk (overpainted by the sky revision) partially crossed polars, 200x. C) and D) Coarse, rounded polycrystalline grain of a pale green species with low birefringence from the sparse tree against the golden sky, without polars and with partially crossed polars, respectively, 400x. E) and F) Blocky fragment with moderate birefringence and adhering yellow ochre grains from ground layer, without polars and with partially crossed polars, respectively, 400x. G) Fine-grained, rounded agglomerates of an isotropic pale green earth from the sparse tree against the golden sky, with adjacent ocher and lead-tin yellow particles, partially crossed polars, 400x.
Fig. 36. Polarized light microscopy examples of dispersed green earth pigments from Triumph of Bacchus (1635–1636), in transmitted light. A) Fine-grained agglomerate of a strongly birefringent aquamarine type from the surface of the wreath leaf, partially crossed polars, 200x. B) Deep green, highly birefringent particles with splintery fracture in the rightmost dark tree trunk (overpainted by the sky revision) partially crossed polars, 200x. C) and D) Coarse, rounded polycrystalline grain of a pale green species with low birefringence from the sparse tree against the golden sky, without polars and with partially crossed polars, respectively, 400x. E) and F) Blocky fragment with moderate birefringence and adhering yellow ochre grains from ground layer, without polars and with partially crossed polars, respectively, 400x. G) Fine-grained, rounded agglomerates of an isotropic pale green earth from the sparse tree against the golden sky, with adjacent ocher and lead-tin yellow particles, partially crossed polars, 400x.
The role of quartz in light skin tones must be considered because fragments of this colorless mineral can occasionally be seen within the paint surface (Fig. 35). Unlike lead white and calcium carbonate, both of which are “colorless,” widely-used white pigments, quartz cannot serve as a white pigment. Its proportion is never sufficient to imply that it was added to make the paint more translucent, but it is possible that by being used in coarse, splintered form it introduced some subtle, sparkling reflections. While quartz also occurs as a natural component of earth pigments in the ground and green paints, the luminous flesh tones lack these pigments. The quartz in these skin colors appears to have arrived independent of earth pigments, possibly as wear particles from grinding.45It cannot be excluded that some of the quartz originated as wear particles lost from stone implements used to grind the pigments. Sharp-edged fragments of colorless quartz and feldspar occur sporadically in the paints and both grounds but these are not typical of quartz in earth pigments, which are rounded by geological weathering and transport (detrital grains). It should not be surprising to encounter detrital grains of quartz and feldspar in the ruddy ground layer where earth pigments are prevalent, but quartz can often be found in layers where earth pigments are used very sparingly, such as the upper, beige ground. Sharp-edged fragments, unrounded by the wear typical of sedimentary minerals, are visible directly in the surface of the flesh paint used for Bacchus. Their lack of both rounding and staining by iron compounds suggest that these are not detrital sedimentary grains incorporated along with the earth pigments, implying some other source.

Construction and Materials of the Greens

The only green drapery in the composition is that of the reclining river god. It is very similar in both appearance and composition to the green used for foliage, as befits a deity associated with earthly properties. This region of the painting is the most fresco-like in its dry, textured appearance (Fig. 29). Green iron earth pigments were used along with additions of lead-tin yellow to produce these greens. Occasionally, ultramarine was incorporated to adjust the hue, but greens always incorporate intrinsically green pigments rather than a mixture of blue and yellow pigments. No copper-based green pigments were employed in The Triumph of Bacchus. All greens are derived from green earths or combinations of green earth and yellow. Magnified observation of the paint layer reveals large differences of particle size and color among the green pigments that have been related to elemental composition, optical behavior, and transmitted light color during testing.

Five samples were studied that included green paints. In addition to the shadow green from the robe of the river god these include: the upper leaves of the sapling projecting from the hill near the right edge; foliage barely above the top of the same hill; the sparse tree standing against the orange sky beneath Apollo; and a leaf in the wreath of the rightmost bacchante. All of the greens incorporate small amounts of lead-tin yellow type I. The greens tend to be drab in this painting, verging on brown, as a consequence of the use of yellow and brown iron earth pigments in combination with lead-tin yellow and green earth. Therefore, the brown coloration of much of the foliage is purposeful and not a consequence of the decomposition of green pigments based upon copper compounds, nor of the graying of smalt, pigments that do not occur in this painting.

A cross section of the river god’s shadow drapery confirms that the green is a thin, semi-transparent layer of green earth applied directly atop the beige upper ground layer which remains visible through it. The composition of the layer as a whole is nearly identical to that of the individual green earth pigment particles that it contains, with only a little lead white to aid drying of the paint and no lead-tin yellow or iron oxides to adjust its color. Rounded grains of green earth up to the size of sand particles (20 microns) provide the color.

The leaves of the sapling were painted atop two, wet-over-wet layers of the cloudy sky. Unlike the green drapery shadow, the leaf paint has been rendered opaque with a ten-fold increase in fine lead white, and includes orange ferrous silica grains, fine lead-tin yellow, and traces of vermilion in addition to the coarse green earth. The lead-tin yellow grains range widely in composition from ones deficient in tin to ones with a large excess of tin relative to their lead content.

The leaves just above the hill were painted over a similar wet-over-wet, two layer sky but these were applied on top of a dark brown layer rather than directly over the beige ground. The dark layer beneath the sky is the trunk of a tree eliminated by the artist from the early composition. This green mixture is also opacified with lead white, but contains more of the orange ferrous silica. The lead-tin yellow here contains multiple examples of unreacted tin oxide left over from the preparation of the pigment.

The green of the sparse tree beneath Apollo lies atop a rosy hued sky. The paint of the sky here is a single thin layer (about 10 microns thick) over the beige ground that sets its underlying tone. The green of the foliage is much thicker than the sky at the location sampled (about 30 microns). Its lead content is intermediate between the two previous examples and much of it is present in the form of fine lead-tin yellow and non-particulate lead dissolved in the paint medium. Orange ferrous silica is an important part of the mixture and conspicuous white grains of unreacted tin oxide are associated with its lead-tin yellow. Particles of this green mixture adhering to a fragment of varnish in the sample provide views of their varied optical behavior in the polarizing microscope (Fig. 36 C, D, & G).

Only the uppermost leaf green was sampled from the head wreath, and it contains the same group of pigments. Their examination in the polarizing microscope provided some insight into the great variety of iron earth variations that elemental analysis alone does not disclose. In Fig. 36A, examples of the isotropic orange ferrous silica and lead-tin yellow are present, along with “green” earth minerals ranging in color from yellow to green to aquamarine, some of them highly birefringent and others isotropic, some fibrous, and others fine-grained and platey.

Two cross sections from areas where trees were covered by Poussin’s revisions to the sky on the right (described above) provided additional indications of the complexity of the earth pigments. The overpainted trunks of the trees had originally been left in reserve, painted atop the upper beige ground rather than over the colors of the sky, using a very dark brown mixture. The mixture of the overpainted tree trunk is very high in earth pigments, including green earth (Fig. 36B) and the orange ferrous silica widely used throughout the painting. It is low in lead content, with only small, isolated particles of lead white.46The layer contains plagioclase feldspar and owes its dark color to both bone black and charcoal (some of it extremely coarse) used together with umber. Bone black was not found alone as a black pigment in Bacchus. For example, it was not encountered in the black that was used as an underlayer for blue. It occurs elsewhere in mixtures of darker browns and in small amounts in the first ground. Green earth is also a component of both grounds (Fig. 36 E&F).

All green earths owe their color to iron but individual examples vary widely in their mineral contents.47C.A. Grissom, “Green Earth,” in Artists’ Pigment: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, ed. R.L. Feller (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1986), 1:141–67. Elemental compositions averaged over green layer cross sections show that both magnesium and potassium were systematically present along with the requisite iron, silica, and alumina. However, by conducting elemental analyses on individual grains, two compositional classes were found to be present, one of which contains potassium iron silicate with very little magnesium, and another in which magnesium is prevalent and potassium diminished. In cross sections where the colors of large individual grains were apparent, their color often differed in accordance with these compositional differences.

Additional distinctions were found when optical properties visible in polarized light microscopypolarized light microscopy (PLM): A method used for the study and differentiation of pigments based on the optical properties of individual particles, including color, refractive index, birefringence, etc. PLM is particularly useful in identifying the presence of organic pigments such as indigo and Prussian blue, which often cannot be differentiated from paint medium in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM); differentiating synthetic pigments from their natural analogs by particle shape or the presence of extraneous mineral matter; and disclosing the presence of pigments with similar composition but differing color, such as red and yellow iron oxides. were examined. Rounded grains of three distinct green earth types can be found, each with its own color, internal crystal structure, and degree of birefringence (Fig. 36A). Another green earth, with deeper green saturation, stronger pleochroism, and occasional splintery morphology, occurs in other samples (Fig. 36B).

Distinctive Individual Characteristics of Poussin’s Palette

The condition, composition, and particle size of lead-tin yellow in The Triumph of Bacchus is highly variable, with many coarse particles consisting of sintered, porous agglomerates (Fig. 33). The proportions of lead to tin vary between the extremes of pure tin oxide to nearly pure lead oxide, with color variations ranging from nearly white to the more typical lemon yellow.48Because lead soap formations are sometimes evident within and adjacent to the agglomerates, it is not possible to rule out a role for extraction of lead from the lead-tin yellow pigment agglomerates by free fatty acids in the paint medium as cause of their condition. Lead soap formations are present, but do not visually affect the painting in large numbers. Dramatic eruptive or laminated growth structures consisting of lead fatty acid soaps such as those illustrated by Higgitt et al. were not encountered in this painting. Others working on older paintings from the fifteenth century have found red lead oxide within lead-tin yellow type I agglomerates and have speculated that this represents unreacted residual lead from the starting materials. The uptake of this uncombined lead oxide to form lead-fatty acid soaps inside the agglomerates represents an easier path to their formation than a mechanism requiring the breakdown of the lead-tin yellow compound as a prerequisite to soap formations. Red lead oxide was not observed within the agglomerates in Bacchus in either optical or electron microscopy, nor was it detected there by Raman spectroscopy. See Catherine Higgitt, Marika Spring, and David Saunders, “Pigment-medium Interactions in Oil Paint Films containing Red Lead or Lead-tin Yellow,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 24 (2003): 75–95. The greatly varying proportions of lead to tin that were found seem certainly to be due to unreacted starting materials. The prevalence of non-particulate lead in cases that appear deficient in tin can be explained by the subsequent formation of lead soaps from unreacted lead starting materials.49J. Boon, E. Gore, K. Keune, and A. Burnstock, “Image Analytical Studies of Lead Soap Aggregates and Their Relationship to Lead and Tin in 15th-Century Lead-tin Yellow Paints from the Sherborne Triptych,” The Sixth Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference-IRUG6, (Florence, 29 March–1 April 2004), ed. M. Picollo (Padova: Il Prato, 2005), 66–74.

One of the principal ingredients of the paints and of both grounds, occurring in virtually every paint mixture, is an orange iron earth component that is unusual in several respects and which we have not encountered so widely employed in the work of other painters. It has a well-defined and simple composition yet does not correspond to a specific mineral speciesmineral species: A non-living, homogeneous substance found in nature, classified by the proportions of the elements that it contains and the arrangement of those elements in a crystal lattice. When determined to be a singular entity, or phase, as opposed to a mixture of different entities, it is given an internationally agreed-upon species name (often ending in -ite). Pigments and alteration products of artist’s materials that form with the same composition and structure as their natural analogs are often identified by the mineral species name. Substances with widely varying compositions that do not take on a crystalline structure are often glasses, a state of matter that accommodates a higher degree of randomness in the linkages between its atoms.. Though never used alone, it often occurs in the absence of other iron earth minerals (such as clay or green earth), indicating that it is not a species introduced as part of a natural mixture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra of dozens of individual grains from all paints in which it occurs demonstrate that it contains iron and silica in varying proportions and lacks aluminum. A small response for phosphorus is present in many examples (Fig. 30). The grains on which the most accurate individual SEM analyses can be conducted are coarse, bright orange, and rounded, though the same composition can be found in smaller sizes where neighboring pigments contribute to the elements detected. The absence of aluminum indicates that they do not contain clay, nor any other form of aluminosilicate mineral. Our designation of them as “ferrous silica” acknowledges that there are no recognized mineral species that consist solely of silica and iron oxides or hydroxides.50The undetected presence of any light elements outside the range of our analysis methods would not suffice to identify the grains as any other known mineral type. Furthermore, the oxides of iron and silicon alone do not form a glass, suggesting that these grains are not a manmade furnace product. One of the most common materials capable of yielding such an analytical result would be an intimate combination of separate minerals in the form of detrital (rounded) quartz particles bearing hydrated iron oxide coatings, a type of sedimentary grainsedimentary grain: A mineral grain, or rock fragment containing several mineral grains, liberated by the weathering of solid rock formations. They are typically wear-rounded as they are carried by wind or water. Garden soil is generally comprised of sedimentary grains along with finer matter such as clay and organic matter. Earth pigments often contain sedimentary grains but some consist of minerals mined in-situ, where they formed. abundant in many geological environments. However, the isotropic or very weakly birefringent optical behavior of these grains demonstrates that they are not typical detrital quartz. Furthermore, they do not possess iron coatings that are resolvable by either optical or scanning electron microscopy at magnifications where coated detrital grains are easily recognizable. Unlike coated grains, their color appears uniform through the interior when larger examples are transected in cross sections. The SEM often shows faint texture across the interior, with minimal atomic weight contrast, suggesting that the grains consist of an intimate mixture of the iron and silica on a scale too fine to resolve in the SEM.

Condition and Implications of Poussin’s Choices of Materials

Pigments identified in the ground and paint layers are shown in Table 1. Several materials commonly in use in the seventeenth century that are conspicuous by their absence have important ramifications for the present-day appearance of the painting. Copper compounds such as azurite and malachite, their synthetic analogs blue and green verditer, the blue-green pigment verdigris (neutral or basic copper acetate), and the green copper-organic compound known as copper-resinate, are all absent. In varying degrees, all of these copper compounds create vulnerabilities in a painting due to their propensities to darken or adversely interact with other pigments. Poussin made use of the more stable of these, such as azurite, in other works, but their complete avoidance here eliminates several pathways for color degradation. When we see brown foliage in Bacchus, it is not a consequence of a deteriorated green copper pigment.

Smalt was another blue pigment widely used in the period that Poussin chose not to employ for Bacchus, though he used it in certain other works. Smalt is a blue glass whose color is contributed by a very small percentage of cobalt. Decomposition of the glass commonly leads to graying of the color of smalt—also avoided by its exclusion from this palette.

The yellow pigment orpiment (natural arsenic sulfide) is also absent, though Poussin used it for yellow highlights in certain other works. Orpiment can undergo several forms of autonomous alteration, including oxidation accompanied by a loss of color, and may adversely interact with other pigments to promote darkening through the formation of sulfides. These were also avoided in Bacchus.

Bacchus contains two lake pigments in red and yellow whose transparency assists in creating rich glaze colors. They also occur in small amounts in other paints and the ground layers. The organic dyes responsible for their colors remain unfaded but have not been identified. Both were prepared on a base of alumina derived from alum. Residual salts from the alum can be a factor in paint alteration and, indeed, there are examples both of residual sulfate in some of the lake particles and of their reaction products with lead inside the paint layers and in obscuring surface deposits.

The sole blue pigment found in Bacchus is ultramarine, the most-costly of the blue pigments of his day, which was refined from lapis lazulilapis lazuli: A rock containing several minerals, including the brilliant blue lazurite, along with calcite, diopside, and iron pyrite, among others. Obtained by trade along the Silk Route, natural ultramarine was produced by a laborious and costly process of grinding and separating the blue lazurite from the unwanted minerals. The intensity of its color depends on not being ground too finely while freeing it of colorless matter, two objectives that were difficult to meet simultaneously, resulting different grades. A means of making synthetic ultramarine was discovered in the 19th century, making it cheaply available in large quantities and virtually eliminating demand for the natural variety. usually procured from Afghanistan, its only old-world source. It was available in varying qualities and degrees of color saturation and that variation is apparent in different locations in the painting. Some occurrences employ deep blue grains while other areas have abundant pale examples. Areas painted primarily with ultramarine can undergo a loss of color saturation that is visually similar to the lightening effect of a blanchedblanching: A whitish haze or discoloration that may indicate deterioration of a varnish layer or an alteration of the paint film caused by inappropriate cleaning. varnish, but uncorrectable through revarnishing. On the other hand, most instances of color change in the blues of Bacchus are the result of overlying deteriorated varnish residues, which can be addressed with cleaning.

Early documentation confirms that Bacchus was cleaned by Marcel Rougeron prior to its 1931 acquisition.51Letter from Harold Woodbury Parsons, Nelson-Atkins art advisor, to J.C. Nichols, Nelson-Atkins trustee, December 11, 1931, Nelson-Atkins curatorial files. The current wax-lining and modern stretcher verify that a subsequent treatment occurred sometime between 1940 and 1973,52Conservation records are incomplete from 1931 and 1973, but the wax-lining technique and replacement stretcher are consistent with treatments and materials from this period. and in 1981 a synthetic varnish was applied to resaturate the colors of the painting.53Forrest R. Bailey, March 3, 1981, examination report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, no. 31-94. In the past, scholars expressed reluctance about the authenticity of Bacchus, frequently citing (and in some cases overstating) condition problems. While there is some subtle paint abrasion present, for example throughout the right sky, and disruptions to the gradual transitions of light and shadow on the lower left putto and river god’s back,54Condition is an important factor in discussions of attribution, as both figures were described in the literature as being less successful passages. See Hilary Balon, “From Eminences to Entrepreneurs,” in Richelieu: Art and Power, ed. Hilliard Todd Goldfarb, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002), 194. the painting has not been drastically overcleaned or “brutally treated.”55Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Flammarion, 1994), 254. Translation by Nicole R. Myers. The putto is also affected by an increased transparency of the paint, which has caused dark underlying layers to become more prominent over time (Fig. 28). The discolored layers of synthetic varnish produce an overall gray tonality that diminishes Poussin’s original colors. Additionally, a faint cleaning line is apparent in the upper left sky, leaving the left side slightly brighter than the right, and residues of yellowed natural resin varnish disrupt the folds of blue drapery (central and rightmost bacchantes) and produce a blanched appearance across the right foreground. A small amount of discolored retouching is scattered throughout, and fill materialfill material: A material added to a loss of paint and/or ground to create an area level with the surrounding original paint. and retouching are present on all four outermost edges.

Concluding Remarks

The results of the palette study clarify the limited number of alteration phenomena that affect the appearance of Bacchus and rule out many forms of damage commonly encountered in paintings of the period, suggesting that cleaning and revarnishing alone would result in a significant improvement in appearance. The extent of prior restorations is small and instances where existing restorations negatively impact the appearance are very few.

In characterizing the palette and ways in which Poussin employed his materials, we have attempted to illustrate the selections that he made from those available to a painter of his stature and time, placing an equal emphasis on those that he omitted and potential pitfalls thereby avoided. We have also emphasized idiosyncrasies of the materials that could serve as useful comparisons to the materials used in the other works of the Richelieu commission, his wider oeuvre, and the work of his contemporaries. At the earliest stage of this study, the idea of a palette comparison between the three Richelieu bacchanals as a primary means of gauging their similarity and attributions was dismissed as being unworkable, in the short term at least, since the Nelson-Atkins collection holds only one work attributed to Poussin and because copies most likely to have been confused with his works are nearly contemporary in date and material sources. The remarkable success of the canvas weave match posed provocative questions about the criteria on which judgments against Bacchus and Silenus as original works by Poussin were based over much of the twentieth century. However, it also changed the landscape regarding the value of palette comparisons. In light of the canvas linkage, everything that can be learned from the painting materials of all three bacchanals will more accurately reflect the spectrum of Poussin’s work. To that end, we look forward to cross comparisons of the results found here with Poussin’s work in other collections.

Mary Schafer and John Twilley
April 2021

Notes

  1. Paul Jamot, “Sur quelques tableaux de Poussin à propos de l’exposition du paysage français,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire de l’art français (1925): 103. Translated from French by Nicole R. Myers, former associate curator, European paintings and sculpture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.

  2. Jacques Thuillier, “Poussin et la laboratoire,” Techné, no. 1 (1994): 18. Translation provided by Nicole R. Myers, former associate curator, European paintings and sculpture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. The fourth painting to which Thuillier refers is Poussin’s Birth of Venus, sometimes titled The Triumph of Neptune (1635 or 1636; Philadelphia Museum of Art, E1932-1-1). The thread count of its canvas is markedly different than that of the other three, so that higher-level comparison was not undertaken. Mark Tucker, Aronson Senior Conservator of Paintings and Vice Chair of Conservation, Philadelphia Museum of Art, email message with the author, 2015. The authors thank Tucker for providing his manual thread counts that established this difference.

  3. The authors are indebted to Nicole R. Myers, former associate curator, European paintings and sculpture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, for her curatorial contributions to the study.

  4. The scientific study of The Triumph of Bacchus was supported by an endowment from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for conservation science at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.

  5. Results from the technical study were disseminated in two prior publications. See John Twilley, Nicole Myers, and Mary Schafer, “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques for The Triumph of Bacchus at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art,” Kermes 27, nos. 94-95 (April/September 2014): 71–83. Robert Erdmann, C. Richard Johnson, Mary Schafer, John Twilley, Nicole Myers, and Travis Sawyer, “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” AIC Paintings Specialty Group: Postprints 26; Papers Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis (Washington, DC: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2013): 155–72.

  6. These made use of a mathematical function known as the Fourier transform, operating on a digitized version of the painting radiograph, centimeter by centimeter. See D.H. Johnson, R.G. Erdmann, and C.R. Johnson, Jr., “Whole-Painting Canvas Analysis Using High- and Low-Level Features,” Proceeding of the 36th International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2011): 969–72; and D. H. Johnson, C. R. Johnson, Jr., and R.G. Erdmann, “Weave Analysis of Paintings on Canvas from Radiographs,” Signal Processing (Special Issue on Image Processing for Digital Art Work) 93, no. 3 (March 2013): 527–40.

  7. Robert Erdmann and C. Richard Johnson, December 13, 2011, “Automated Canvas Examination: Poussin / NAMA / 31-94,” unpublished report, NAMA conservation file, no. 31-94. The canvas comparison and technical study were disseminated in two prior publications. See Erdmann et al., “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” 155–72. Twilley et al., “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques for The Triumph of Bacchus at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art,” 71–83.

  8. Pierre Rosenberg, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des museés nationaux, 1994), 226. Hugh Brigstocke, “Variants, copies et imitations. Quelques réflexions sur les méthodes de travail de Poussin,” in A. Mérot, ed., Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre par le Service culturel du 19 au 21 octobre 1994, vol. I (Paris: La documentation française, 1996), 209–10. Pierre Rosenberg, “Les Bacchanals Richelieu: ce que l’on sait et ce que l’on ne sait pas (encore),” in P. Bassani, A. Gady, and S. Kespern, eds., Richelieu à Richelieu: architecture et décors d’un château disparu, exh. cat. (Silvana: Cinisello Balsamo, 2011), 132. Humphrey Wine, National Gallery Catalogues: The Seventeenth Century French Paintings (London: National Gallery, 2001), 380, 383n40–42.

  9. Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Silenus’ Rediscovered,” Burlington Magazine 163, no. 1418 (May 2021): 408–15.

  10. To demonstrate that a comparable outcome could be obtained from a guided traverse along a single thread, the innovation of using a “guide thread” visible in the radiograph, along which the spacing of every crossing thread could be manually entered, was introduced. The resulting set of spacing measurements could then be shifted, thread by thread, away from the apparent best match in both directions, and the quality of match in the resulting trial alignments plotted. See Erdmann et al., “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” 155–72.

  11. Van der Maaten employed a machine learning approach that made a full comparison of the canvases in both directions possible at the level of individual thread spacings. The twelve-thousand, manually- extracted, thread-crossing measurements along the guide threads used in validation of the previous match were used in training of the new algorithm. Incorporated into van der Maaten’s solution was a means for projecting the re-emergence points of individual threads that become locally obscured in the radiograph by heavy overlapping paint strokes, increasing the proportion of the canvas that could be included in difficult comparisons. This method eliminated reliance upon local averages of thread spacings and made full thread-by-thread comparisons possible. See L.J.P. van der Maaten and R.G. Erdmann, “Automatic thread-level canvas analysis,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 32, no. 4 (2015): 38-45.

  12. See film-based radiographs, no. 461, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, 31-94.

  13. Similar radio-transparent lines have been observed in the radiographs of the following Poussin works: Holy Family on the Steps (1648; Cleveland Museum of Art), Holy Family (1640–1642; Detroit Institute of Arts), and Holy Family with Ten Figures (1649; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin). See Carol Sawyer, assisted by Marcia Steele, “Poussin’s Holy Family on the Steps: New Technical Discoveries, Comparisons, and the Washington Copy,” Cleveland Studies in the History of Art 4, (1999): 142n23.

  14. The cusping is visible in the radiograph but was also verified by canvas weave automation. Robert Erdmann and Richard C. Johnson, December 13, 2011, “Automated Canvas Examination: Poussin \ NAMA \ 31-94,” unpublished report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, no. 31-94.

  15. Helen Glanville, “‘De lumine et umbra’—theory and practice, material and perception, in the paintings of Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665)” (PhD diss., Department of Art History, University of La Sapienza, Rome, forthcoming).

  16. See Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The Andrew W. Mellon Lectures in Fine Arts, 1958 (London: Phaidon Press Ltd, 1967), 1:242–44. See also Diane DeGrazia and Marcia Steele, “The ‘Grande Machine’,” Cleveland Studies in the History of Art 4 (1999): 64–67.

  17. DeGrazia and Steele, Cleveland Studies, 65-66.

  18. According to Joachim von Sandrart (1606–1688), Poussin began using this method of placing the wax figures on a gridded board around 1630. Konrad Oberhuber et al., Poussin, the Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism, exh. cat. (New York: Hudson Hills, 1988), 208.

  19. Similarly, technical study of The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Saint Elizabeth (1650–1651; Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Cambridge, MA) has shown that the gazes of all figures, with the exception of the lower left putto, are directed toward the vanishing point. Rikke Foulke, “The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Saint Elizabeth,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 90.

  20. Avigdor Arikha has shown that incised lines in the paint of The Rape of the Sabines (ca. 1637–1638; Musée du Louvre, Paris) radiate from a “point of harmony.” See Avigdor Arikha, Nicolas Poussin: The Rape of the Sabines, exh. cat. (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1983), 28–32.

  21. Helen Glanville, “‘De lumine et umbra’—theory and practice, material and perception, in the paintings of Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665)”, (forthcoming).

  22. This aspect of Poussin’s technique was first documented in the 1999 technical study of The Holy Family on the Steps (1648; Cleveland Museum of Art). See Sawyer, assisted by Steele, “Poussin’s Holy Family on the Steps: New Technical Discoveries, Comparisons, and the Washington Copy,” 122.

  23. The authors thank Helen Glanville for pointing out the unclothed construction of the river god. Other examples of this technique include Landscape during a Thunderstorm with Pyramus and Thisbe (1651; Städel Museum, Frankfurt), Venus Presenting her Arms to Aeneas (1639; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen), and The Crossing of the Red Sea (1632–1634; National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne). See Helen Glanville, “Nicolas Poussin: Creation and Perception,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 20, 22; Laurie Benson and Carl Villis, “The Crossing of the Red Sea in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April/September 2014): 63–64.

  24. The presence of these significant compositional changes further validates the authenticity of Bacchus, since it would be highly unusual for a copyist to take liberties with primary components of Poussin’s composition.

  25. Christopher Wright, Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné (London: Harlequin Books, 1985), 53.

  26. The authors are grateful to Helen Glanville who observed that the vase was painted on top of the dark foreground during a joint examination of Bacchus in 2014.

  27. The authors thank Ana Debenedetti, assistant curator, paintings and drawings, for information related to their copy of The Triumph of Bacchus (pre-1800; The Victoria and Albert Museum, London).

  28. An approach that was not always attuned to his patron’s expectations; see Helen Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Triumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae 37 (74) (2016): 241–54.

  29. H. Glanville, H. Rousselière, L. De Viguerie, and Ph. Walter, “Mens Agitat Molem: New Insights into Nicolas Poussin’s Painting Technique by X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Analyses,” in Science and Art: The Painted Surface, ed. Antonio Sgamellotti, Brunetto Giovanni Brunetti, and Costanza Miliani (London: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014), 314–35.

  30. Samples were prepared in two ways: as embedded cross sections and as fracture sections presented to the instrument without further preparation, apart from a conductive coating of evaporated carbon. Cross-comparisons have been made with optical microscopy and UV fluorescence microscopy, with a few confirmatory identifications carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) has then been used to correlate differences in color and optical properties with individual pigment species. PLM has been especially important in disclosing differences among the green iron earths which share overlapping elemental compositions. The formal cross sections often provide a clearer view of the sequence of paint applications, while the fracture fragments often reveal pigment alteration and texture features more clearly. As others have noted, the dry, fresco-like appearance favored by Poussin often entailed using paints with a slight deficit of oil medium, resulting in samples that can be brittle and difficult to prepare for analysis.

  31. A. Duval, “Les préparations colorées des tableaux de l’École Française des dix-septième et dix-huitième siècles,” Studies in Conservation 37 (1992): 239–58.

  32. Duval commented upon the difficulty of distinguishing fine-grained red lead when its color cannot be distinguished from other reds in a colored ground mixture. Our own tests have confirmed the use of fine red lead as a minor component of the grounds in Bacchus and the attendant difficulty of locating it.

  33. A. Duval, “Les enduits de préparation des tableaux de Nicolas Poussin,” Techné 1 (1994): 35–41.

  34. Pigment species confirmed in the lower, dark ground include quartz, sodium feldspar, fine hematite (red ochre) and goethite (yellow ochre), ferrous silica, light green iron earth with undulose optical extinction, iron-magnesium aluminosilicates (green earth), and discolored medium with minor cinnabar, red lead, calcium carbonate, lead white, lead soap alteration products, potassium clay or mica, red lake on alumina, gypsum, bone black, and chromite traces. One example of a large red agglomerate containing calcium-potassium sulfate along with iron oxides points to a possible origin for the iron earth in a jarosite (potassium iron sulfate) formation.

  35. Pigment species confirmed in the upper beige ground through SEM elemental analysis include lead white, quartz (some of it splintered and unworn), potassium feldspar, sodium feldspar, sodium-potassium feldspar, coarse hydrated iron oxide, ferrous silica grains, lead soap alteration products, calcite, very fine goethite (yellow ochre), and minor amounts of coarse red lake, clay, cinnabar, charcoal, and more rarely, ultramarine, gypsum, and potassium-calcium sulfate.

  36. V. Gonzalez, G. Wallez, T. Calligaro, M. Cotte, W. De Nolf, and M. Eveno, “Synchrotron-based high angle resolution and high lateral resolution X-ray diffraction: Revealing lead white pigment qualities in old masters paintings,” Analytical Chemistry 89 no. 24 (2017): 13203–11.

  37. Raman spectra of these two coarse-grained classes, which occur throughout the painting, fall cleanly into categories correlating closely to reference standards for cerussite and hydrocerrusite in the RRUFF database as shown on the right of Figure 30. RRUFF id #s R040069 and R070059, respectively, https://rruff.info/about/about_general.php (accessed 9-18-21). B. Lafuente , R.T. Downs, H. Yang, and N. Stone, “The power of databases: the RRUFF project,” in Highlights in Mineralogical Crystallography, ed. T. Armbruster and R. M. Danisi (Berlin: W. De Gruyter, 2015), 1–30. The hydrocerussite that matches most closely differs from other natural history specimens in the RRUFF compilation in being a pseudomorph after plumbonacrite. Recent work on details of the Dutch process for lead white production show that plumbonacrite is usually a short-lived intermediate that transforms to hydrocerussite in the final product, accounting for this distinction in the pigment.

  38. A. van Loon, P. Noble, and J. J. Boon, “White hazes and surface crusts in Rembrandt’s Homer and related paintings,” ICOM-CC Lisbon 2011: Preprints 16th triennial conference Lisbon, 19–23 September 2011, 1–10.

  39. Stephen W. T. Price, Annelies Van Loon, Katrien Keune, Aaron D. Parsons, Claire Murray, Andrew M. Beale, and J. Fred W. Mosselmans, “Unravelling the spatial dependency of the complex solid-state chemistry of Pb in a paint micro-sample from Rembrandt’s Homer using XRD-CT,” Chemical Communications 55 (2019): 1931–34.

  40. Steven De Meyer, Frederik Vanmeert, Rani Vertongen, Annelies van Loon, Victor Gonzalez, Geert van der Snickt, Abbie Vandivere, and Koen Janssens, “Imaging secondary reaction products at the surface of Vermeer’s Girl with the Pearl Earring by means of macroscopic X‑ray powder diffraction scanning,” Heritage Science 7, no. 1 (2019): 1–11.

  41. Prior to, and during Poussin’s lifetime, lead-tin yellow was produced in two forms by calcining lead and tin oxides alone (designated Type I) and as a glassy material incorporating silica (Type II). Only type I occurs in Bacchus. During his career, the lead-antimony compound known as Naples yellow was beginning to replace the two varieties of lead-tin yellow, and Poussin employed it in some other works. However, Naples yellow was never encountered in Bacchus, either as a yellow pigment in its own right nor as a tinting pigment in mixtures.

  42. Helen Glanville, personal communication, September 23, 2021.

  43. In addition to the coarse species identifiable on the top surface, polarized light microscopy of the pale flesh shows it to be preponderantly lead white colored by the same isotropic orange ferrous silica species widely employed throughout this painting, traces of fine charcoal, and fine vermilion. Shadows often employ thin, transparent applications of charcoal and additional vermilion.

  44. K. Lutzenberger, H. Stege, and C. Tilenschi, “A note on glass and silica in oil paintings from the 15th to the 17th century,” Journal of Cultural Heritage 11 (2010): 365–72.

  45. It cannot be excluded that some of the quartz originated as wear particles lost from stone implements used to grind the pigments. Sharp-edged fragments of colorless quartz and feldspar occur sporadically in the paints and both grounds but these are not typical of quartz in earth pigments, which are rounded by geological weathering and transport (detrital grains). It should not be surprising to encounter detrital grains of quartz and feldspar in the ruddy ground layer where earth pigments are prevalent, but quartz can often be found in layers where earth pigments are used very sparingly, such as the upper, beige ground. Sharp-edged fragments, unrounded by the wear typical of sedimentary minerals, are visible directly in the surface of the flesh paint used for Bacchus. Their lack of both rounding and staining by iron compounds suggest that these are not detrital sedimentary grains incorporated along with the earth pigments, implying some other source.

  46. The layer contains plagioclase feldspar and owes its dark color to both bone black and charcoal (some of it extremely coarse) used together with umber. Bone black was not found alone as a black pigment in Bacchus. For example, it was not encountered in the black that was used as an underlayer for blue. It occurs elsewhere in mixtures of darker browns and in small amounts in the first ground.

  47. C.A. Grissom, “Green Earth,” in Artists’ Pigment: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, ed. R.L. Feller (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1986), 1:141–67.

  48. Because lead soap formations are sometimes evident within and adjacent to the agglomerates, it is not possible to rule out a role for extraction of lead from the lead-tin yellow pigment agglomerates by free fatty acids in the paint medium as cause of their condition. Lead soap formations are present, but do not visually affect the painting in large numbers. Dramatic eruptive or laminated growth structures consisting of lead fatty acid soaps such as those illustrated by Higgitt et al. were not encountered in this painting. Others working on older paintings from the fifteenth century have found red lead oxide within lead-tin yellow type I agglomerates and have speculated that this represents unreacted residual lead from the starting materials. The uptake of this uncombined lead oxide to form lead-fatty acid soaps inside the agglomerates represents an easier path to their formation than a mechanism requiring the breakdown of the lead-tin yellow compound as a prerequisite to soap formations. Red lead oxide was not observed within the agglomerates in Bacchus in either optical or electron microscopy, nor was it detected there by Raman spectroscopy. See Catherine Higgitt, Marika Spring, and David Saunders, “Pigment-medium Interactions in Oil Paint Films containing Red Lead or Lead-tin Yellow,” National Gallery Technical Bulletin 24 (2003): 75–95.

  49. J. Boon, E. Gore, K. Keune, and A. Burnstock, “Image Analytical Studies of Lead Soap Aggregates and Their Relationship to Lead and Tin in 15th-Century Lead-tin Yellow Paints from the Sherborne Triptych,” The Sixth Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference-IRUG6, (Florence, 29 March–1 April 2004), ed. M. Picollo (Padova: Il Prato, 2005), 66–74.

  50. The undetected presence of any light elements outside the range of our analysis methods would not suffice to identify the grains as any other known mineral type. Furthermore, the oxides of iron and silicon alone do not form a glass, suggesting that these grains are not a manmade furnace product.

  51. Letter from Harold Woodbury Parsons, Nelson-Atkins art advisor, to J.C. Nichols, Nelson-Atkins trustee, December 11, 1931, Nelson-Atkins curatorial files.

  52. Conservation records are incomplete from 1931 and 1973, but the wax-lining technique and replacement stretcher are consistent with treatments and materials from this period.

  53. Forrest R. Bailey, March 3, 1981, examination report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, no. 31-94.

  54. Condition is an important factor in discussions of attribution, as both figures were described in the literature as being less successful passages. See Hilary Balon, “From Eminences to Entrepreneurs,” in Richelieu: Art and Power, ed. Hilliard Todd Goldfarb, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002), 194.

  55. Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Flammarion, 1994), 254. Translation by Nicole R. Myers.

Documentation
Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

Provenance

provenace

Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

Commissioned by Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642), Château de Richelieu, Poitou, by May 19, 1636–1642;

By descent to his great-nephew, Armand Jean de Vignerot du Plessis, 2nd duc de Richelieu (1629–1715), Château de Richelieu, Poitou, 1642–1715;

By descent to his son, Louis François Armand de Vignerot du Plessis, 3rd duc de Richelieu, maréchal de France (1696–1788), Château de Richelieu, Poitou, 1715;

To his wife, Élizabeth Sophie de Lorraine-Harcourt, 3rd duchesse de Richelieu (1710–1740), Château de Richelieu, Poitou, between 1734 and 1740 [1];

With Samuel Paris (active 1730s–1740s), London, by 1741 [2];

Purchased from Paris’s sale in London, 1741/1742, lot 48, as The Triumph of Bacchus, by Peter Delmé (1710–1770), Grosvenor Square, London, 1741/1742–no later than 1770 [3];

By descent to his son, Peter Delmé (1748–1789), by 1770–1789;

Purchased from Delmé’s posthumous sale, A Catalogue of a Capital, Valuable, and Well-Chosen Collection of Italian, French, Flemish and Dutch Pictures, by the Most Esteemed Masters, the Whole in the Highest Preservation: Amongst the Above Are Two Most Celebrated and Noble Pictures by Nicolas Poussin, One Representing “The Triumph of Bacchus,” the Other “The Sacrifice to the God of Pan;” Ever Esteemed The Most Capital of His Works; Also a Superbe [sic] and Beautiful Landscape by Claude Lorraine, Christie, London, February 13, 1790, lot 63, as The Triumph of Bacchus, by John Ashburnham, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham (1724–1812), Ashburnham Place, Battle, Sussex, 1790–1812;

Probably by descent to George Ashburnham, 3rd Earl of Ashburnham (1760–1830), Ashburnham Place, Battle, Sussex, 1812–1830 [4];

By descent to his son, Bertram Ashburnham, 4th Earl of Ashburnham (1797–1878), Ashburnham Place, Battle, Sussex, by July 20, 1850;

Purchased from Ashburnham’s sale, Catalogue of the Entire and Valuable collection of Italian, Flemish, Dutch, and French Pictures, the Property of the Earl of Ashburnham, Christie and Manson, London, July 20, 1850, lot 63, as The Triumph of Bacchus, by George William Frederick Howard, 7th Earl of Carlisle (1802–1864), Castle Howard, York, 1850–1864;

Inherited by his younger brother, Reverend William George Howard, 8th Earl of Carlisle (1808–1889), Castle Howard, York, 1864–1889;

By descent to his nephew, George James Howard, 9th Earl of Carlisle (1843–1911), Castle Howard, York, 1889–1911;

Inherited by his widow, Rosalind Frances Howard, Countess of Carlisle (née Stanley, 1845–1921), Castle Howard, York, 1911–1921;

By descent to her son, the Honorable Geoffrey William Algernon Howard (1877–1935), Castle Howard, York, 1921–1931;

Purchased from Howard, through Georgiana Isabella Blois (née Frances, 1888–1967), London, by The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, July 30, 1931.

Notes

[1] The painting appears in the duchesse’s posthumous inventory, dated June 23, 1741. She and her husband were married in 1734.

[2] In a notebook entry from 1741, George Vertue mentions that several pictures by Poussin were “lately” “[b]rought over from Paris” to London, and that he saw “with great pleasure” the Triumph of Bacchus that year. See “Vertue’s Note Book, B. 4,” in “Vertue Note Books: Volume III,” special issue, Walpole Society 22 (1933–1934): 105.

[3] According to the handwritten manuscript of Richard Houlditch Jr., dated circa 1760, The Triumph of Bacchus was sold as lot 48 to Peter Delmé on the second day of Samuel Paris’s sale, which took place in “1741/2.” See “[Mr. Paris’s Sale of Pictures, 1741/2,] 2nd Day’s Sale,” ca. 1760, Sales Catalogues of the Principal Collections of Pictures (One Hundred and Seventy One in Number) Sold by Auction in England within the Years 1711–1759, the Greater Part of Them with the Prices and Names of Purchasers, vol. 1, p. 112, manuscript MSL/1938/867–868, National Art Library, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

[4] In the Last Will and Testament of John Ashburnham, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham, he leaves the remainder of his real estate and personal estate to his son, George, Lord Viscount Saint Asaph, which probably included the painting. See “Will of the Right Honorable John Earl of Ashburnham,” The National Archives, Kew, PROB 11/1534/95. Thanks to Brian Phillips, Research Assistant, The Keep, Woollards Way, Brighton, for his assistance in locating this will. George was a Trustee of the British Museum, London, beginning in 1810.

Related Works
Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Pan, 1635–1636, oil on canvas, 53 1/2 x 57 1/2 in. (135.9 x 146 cm), National Gallery, London.

Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Silenus, 1635–1636, oil on canvas, 56 1/4 x 47 1/2 in. (142.9 x 120.5 cm), National Gallery, London.

Preparatory Works
Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

Nicolas Poussin, Centaur Carrying a Nymph; Holy Family with Temple (fragments), ca. 1635, pen, brown ink, and brown wash on two sheets of joined paper, 9 11/16 x 6 5/16 inches (9.3 x 16.0 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Nicolas Poussin, Two Centaurs, ca. 1635, pen, brown ink, and touches of gray wash on paper, 5 1/16 x 8 1/8 inches (12.9 x 20.7 cm), Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Nicolas Poussin, Two Rearing Centaurs with Two Figures behind Them, ca. 1635, pen, brown ink, brown wash on paper, 3 5/16 x 2 15/16 inches (8.3 x 7.5 cm), The State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.

Nicolas Poussin, Two Studies of a Bacchante; Centaur Carrying off a Young Woman, ca. 1635, pen, brown ink, and brown wash on two sheets of joined paper, 3 3/4 x 8 inches (9.5 x 20.3 cm), Musée Bonnat, Bayonne.

Nicolas Poussin, Study for “The Triumph of Bacchus,” 1635, brown ink and blue-gray wash over black chalk on paper, 6 3/16 x 8 15/16 inches (15.7 x 22.7 cm), The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, 54-83.

Nicolas Poussin, The Indian Triumph of Bacchus, ca. 1635–1636, pen, brown ink, and black chalk on paper, 7 15/16 x 12 3/8 inches (20.2 x 31.4 cm), Windsor Castle, Royal Library, London.

Known Copies

copies

Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

Jan de Bisschop (1628–1671), The Triumph of Bacchus, seventeenth century, pen, brown ink and brown wash, 16 1/16 x 19 1/4 inches (40.8 x 48.9 cm), T. Cottrell-Dormer Collection, Rousham House, Oxfordshire, Great Britain.

After Nicolas Poussin, Triumph of Bacchus, probably ca. 1740, oil on canvas, 64 9/16 x 58 1/4 inches (164 x 148 cm), Musée des Beaux-Arts Tours, France.

After Nicolas Poussin, Triumph of Bacchus, oil on canvas, 56 11/16 x 58 1/4 inches (137 x 144 cm), Le Musée Sainte-Croix, Poitiers, France.

After Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, oil on canvas, 54 3/4 x 57 1/16 inches (139 x 145 cm), Musée des Beaux-Arts de Béziers, France.

After Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, oil on canvas, 46 1/16 x 58 11/16 inches (117 x 149 cm), formerly Musée Paul Fourché, Orléans, France, destroyed 1940.

After Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, by second half of the seventeenth century, oil on canvas, 35 7/16 x 46 7/16 inches (90 x 118 cm), Musée des Beaux-Arts d’Orléans, France.

After Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, by second half of the seventeenth century, oil on canvas, 59 1/16 x 57 7/8 inches (150 x 147 cm), Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, France.

After Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, by 1800, oil on canvas, 50 x 59 7/16 inches (127 x 151 cm), Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Exhibitions

exhibitions

Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

The Art Treasures of the United Kingdom, Manchester, England, May 5–October 17, 1857, no. 598, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Le paysage français de Poussin à Corot, Petit Palais, Paris, May–June 1925, no. P271, as Le triomphe de Bacchus.

Durlacher Brothers, New York, March 12–April 6, 1940, no. 5, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Masterpieces of Art: Exhibition at the New York World’s Fair 1940, Masterpieces of Art pavilion, Flushing Meadow Park, Queens, New York, May–October, 1940, no. 60, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

An Exhibition of Great Paintings in Aid of the Canadian Red Cross and of Small Pictures by Members of the Ontario Society of Artists, The Art Gallery of Toronto, November 15–December 15, 1940, no. 31, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Venetian Tradition, The Cleveland Museum of Art, November 9, 1956–January 1, 1957, no. 33, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Trends in Paintings, 1600–1800, Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY, October 2–November 3, 1957, unnumbered, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Exhibition, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, December 1958, hors cat.

Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, The Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, OH, January 4–February 2, 1959, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, February 11–March 10, 1959, unnumbered.

Anatomy and Art, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, May 8–June 5, 1960, no. 90, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, Villa Medici, Rome, November 1977–January 1978, no. 22, as Le triomphe de Bacchus, Städtische Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, January 27–March 12, 1978, no. 21, as Der Triumph des Bacchus.

Poussin Sacraments and Bacchanals: Paintings and Drawings on Sacred and Profane Themes by Nicolas Poussin 1594–1665, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, October 16–December 13, 1981, no. 24, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Poussin: The Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX, September 24–November 27, 1988, hors cat.

Richelieu: Art and Power, The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, September 18, 2002–January 5, 2003, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, January 31–April 20, 2003, no. 126, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Richelieu à Richelieu: architecture et décors d’un château disparu, Musée des Beaux-Arts d’Orléans, Musée municipal de Richelieu, France, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours, March 12–June 13, 2011, no. 125 (Tours only), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Poussin and the Dance, National Gallery, London, October 9, 2021–January 2, 2022; J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, Los Angeles, February 15–May 8, 2022.

References

references

Citation

Chicago:

Kenneth Brummel and Brigid M. Boyle, “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation in French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ed. Aimee Marcereau DeGalan (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

MLA:

Brummel, Kenneth and Brigid M. Boyle. “Nicolas Poussin, The Triumph of Bacchus, 1635⁠–1636,” documentation. French Paintings and Pastels, 1600–1945: The Collections of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.210.4033.

Musée de la Ville de Béziers: Catalogue des Peintures, Aquarelles, Dessins, Sculptures, Objets d’art, etc., 7th ed. (Béziers: A. Bouineau, n. d.), 45.

Pompeo Frangipani to Cardinal Richelieu, May 19, 1636, Correspondance politique, Rome (1636), microfilm P 7511, vol. 57, folio 171, Archives du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, La Corneuve, France.

Gaspard de Daillon to Cardinal Richelieu, 1636–1637, Mémoires et documents, France, microfilm P 3730, vol. 826, folio 88, Archives du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères, La Corneuve, France.

Willem Schellinks, entry on Richelieu, July 20, 1646, “Dagh-register wegens onse Reysze in en door Vrankryck, Engeland, Italien en Duitschland, 1646–65,” manuscript NKS 370 4o, vol. 1, fol. 25, Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen, Denmark.

[Jean] Desmarests [de Saint-Sorlin], Les Promenades de Richelieu, ou les Vertus Chrestiennes (Paris: Henry Le Gras, 1653), 58.

Jean Marot, Le Magnifique Chasteau de Richelieu, en Général et en Particulier, ou les Plans, les Élévations, et Profils Généraux et Particuliers dudit Chasteau, Et de ses Avenuës, Basses-courts, Anti-courts, Courts, Corps de logis, Aisles, Galleries, Escuries, Maneges, Jardins, Bois, Parc, et généralement de tous ses Appartemens (Paris, ca. 1660), unpaginated.

Willem Schellinks, entry on Richelieu, July 12, 1663, “Dagh-register wegens onse Reysze in en door Vrankryck, Engeland, Italien en Duitschland, 1646–65,” manuscript NKS 370 4o, vol. 2, fol. 371, Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Jean de La Fontaine to Madame de La Fontaine, September 12, 1663, Manuscrits de Conrart, no 5132, pp. 123–39, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, Paris [repr. in (Louis Jean Nicolas) de Monmerqué, Opuscules Inédits de Jean de La Fontaine (Paris: J. J. Blaise, 1820), 28, 28n1].

Paul Fréart de Chantelou, “Journal du Voyage du Cavalier Bernin,” 1665, manuscript 2105, Bibliothèque de l’Institut, Paris [repr. in (Paul Fréart) de Chantelou, “Journal du Voyage du Cavalier Bernin,” ed. Ludovic Lalanne, Gazette des Beaux-Arts 16 (1877): 176].

Gio[vanni] Pietro Bellori, Le Vite de’ Pittori, Scultori e Architetti Moderni, part 1 (Rome: Mascardi, 1672), 423.

Filippo Baldinucci, Notizie dei Professori del Disegno da Cimabue in quà: per le Quali si Dimostra Come, e per chi le Belle Arti di Pittura, Scultura e Architettura, Lasciata la Rozzezza delle Maniere Greca e Gotica, si Siano in Questi Secoli Ridotte all’Antica loro Perfezione (1681–1728; repr., Florence: V. Batelli, 1846), 4: 704.

[Benjamin] Vignier, Le Chasteau de Richelieu, ou l’Histoire des Dieux et des Héros de l’Antiquité, Avec des Réfléxions [sic] morales, 2nd ed. (Saumur: Henry Desbordes, 1681), 63, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

André Félibien, Entretiens sur les Vies et sur les Ouvrages des Plus Excellents Peintres Anciens et Modernes (1685; repr., Geneva: Minkoff, 1972), 4:265.

Louis-Henri de Loménie, “Discours sur les ouvrages des plus excellens peintres anciens et nouveaux avec un traité de la peinture composé et imaginé par Mre L.H. de L.C. de B. Reclus,” ca. 1695, manuscrit anc. Saint-Germain 16986, col. 196, Manuscrits occidentaux, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.

Florent Le Comte, Cabinet des Singlularitez d’Architecture, Peinture, Sculpture, et Gravure. Ou Introduction à la Connoissance des plus beaux Arts, figurez sous les Tableaux, les Statuës, et les Estampes (1700; repr., Geneva: Minkoff, 1972), 276.

[Jean-Michel Le Chanteur], “Inventaire après le décès de Madame la Duchesse de Richelieu,” January 23, 1741, étude LXXXIX, cote 470, folio 9 recto, Minutier central des notaires de Paris, Archives nationales, Paris.

“[Mr. Paris’s Sale of Pictures, 1741/2], 2nd Day’s Sale,” ca. 1760, Sales Catalogues of The Principal Collections of Pictures (One Hundred and Seventy one in number) Sold by Auction in England within the years 1711–1759, the greater part of them with the Prices and Names of Purchasers, vol. 1, p. 112, manuscript MSL/1938/867–868, National Art Library, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

[Antoine-Joseph Dézallier d’Argenville], Abrégé de la Vie des Plus Fameux Peintres, avec leurs Portraits Gravés en Taille-douce, les Indications de leurs Principaux Ouvrages, Quelques Réflexions sur leurs caractères, et la Manière de Connoître les Dessins et les Tableaux des Grands Maîtres, vol. 4 (1762; repr., Geneva: Minkoff, 1972), 28.

Giambattista Passeri, Vite de’ Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti che Anno Lavorato in Roma Morti dal 1641. fino al 1673, 1st ed. (1772; repr., [Bologna]: Arnaldo Forni, [1976]), 353.

[Joshua Reynolds], A Discourse, Delivered to the Students of the Royal Academy, on the Distribution of the Prizes, December 10, 1776 (London: Royal Academy, 1777), 17.

A Catalogue of That truly Superb, and well-known Collection of Pictures, of the Roman, Venetian, Spanish, French, Flemish, Dutch and English Schools; the Intire [sic] and Genuine Property of Monsieur Desenfans ([London], 1786), vi.

A Catalogue of A Capital, Valuable, and well-chosen Collection of Italian, French, Flemish and Dutch Pictures, By the most esteemed Masters, the Whole in the highest Preservation. Amongst the above are Two most Celebrated and Noble Pictures by Nicolas Poussin, one representing “The Triumph of Bacchus,” the Other “The Sacrifice to the God of Pan”; ever esteemed the most Capital of all his Works; Also a Superbe and Beautiful Landscape by Claude Lorraine. Late the Property of Peter Delmé, Esq; dec. (London: Christie, 1790), 4.

“Delmé’s Pictures,” The World, no. 975 (February 15, 1790): unpaginated.

“The Arts,” The Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser, no. 19,095 (February 17, 1790): unpaginated.

Amabel Yorke, entry for Thursday, March 21, 1793, Diary of Lady Amabel Yorke of Studley Royal, manuscript WYL150/7/6, vol. 14, p. 64, West Yorkshire Archives Service, Leeds, England.

“A Catalogue of the Pictures of John, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham. (1793),” manuscript, p. 5, The Library, The National Gallery, London, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Joshua Reynolds, The Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knt., Late President of the Royal Academy: Containing his Discourses, Idlers, A Journey to Flanders and Holland, (Now First Published,) and His Commentary on Du Fresnoy’s Art of Painting; Printed from his Revised Copies, (with his Last Corrections and Additions), vol. 1 (London: T. Cadell, Jun. and W. Davies, 1797), 138, as The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

James Dallaway, Anecdotes of the Arts in England or Comparative Remarks on Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting, Chiefly Illustrated by Specimens at Oxford (1800; repr., London: Cornmarket, 1970), 515.

Joseph Mallord William Turner, “Commentary on Nicolas Poussin,” 1802, Studies in the Louvre Sketchbook, D04305, Turner Bequest LXXII, folio 27, Tate Gallery, London.

[John Feltham], The Picture of London, for 1807: Being a Correct Guide to All the Curiosities, Amusements, Exhibitions, Public Establishments, and Remarkable Objects, in and near London, 8th ed. (London: Richard Phillips, 1807), 298.

Nicolas Ruault, Éloge de Nicolas Poussin, Discours qui a remporté le prix de littérature décerné par la Société d’Agriculture, Sciences et Arts du département de l’Eure, dans sa séance publique, tenue à Évreux le 4 juillet 1808 (Paris: Henri Agasse, 1809), 62.

C. P. Landon, Vies et Œuvres des Peintres les Plus Célèbres de Toutes les Écoles; Recueil Classique, contenant L’Œuvre complète des Peintres du premier rang, et leurs Portraits; les principales Productions des Artistes de 2e et 3e classes; un Abrégé de la Vie des Peintres Grecs, et un choix des plus belles Peintures antiques; Réduit et Gravé au Trait, D’après les Estampes de la Bibliothèque impériale et des plus riches Collections particulières, vol. 11 (Paris: Treuttel and Wurtz, 1813), 29, as le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Maria Graham, Memoirs of the Life of Nicholas [sic] Poussin (London: Longman, Hurst, Reese, Orme, and Brown, 1820), 217–18, as Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

Gio[vanni] Pietro Bellori, Vite dei Pittori, Scultori ed Architetti Moderni, vol. 2 (Pisa: Niccolò Capurro, 1821), 163.

John Preston Neale, Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen, in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, vol. 4 (London: Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, 1828), unpaginated, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Ch[arles] de Chergé, “Notice sur le château de Richelieu,” Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de l’Ouest 2 (1836): 234.

John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters; in which is included a short Biographical Notice of the Artists, with a Copious Description of their Principal Pictures; A Statement of the Prices at which Such Pictures Have Been Sold at Public Sales on the Continent and in England; A Reference to the Galleries and Private Collections, in which a Large Portion Are at Present; And the Names of the Artists by Whom They Have Been Engraved to which Is Added, a Brief Notice of the Scholars and Imitators of the Great Masters of the Above Schools, vol. 8, The Life and Works of Nicholas Poussin, Claude Lorraine, and Jean Baptist Greuze (London: Smith and Son, 1837), 110–11, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Catalogue des Tableaux Composant la Galerie de Feu son Éminence le Cardinal Fesch (Rome: Joseph Salviucci et fils, 1841), 49.

Joshua Reynolds, The Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds; Illustrated by Explanatory Notes and Plates by John Burnet, F.R.S. (London: James Carpenter, 1842), 123, 123n5, as Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

Biographie Universelle Ancienne et Moderne, ou Histoire, par Ordre Alphabétique, de la Vie Publique et Privée de Tous les Hommes qui Se Sont Fait Remarquer par leurs Écrits, leurs Actions, leurs Talents leurs Vertus ou leurs Crimes, new ed., vol. 34 (Paris: C. Desplaces, [1843–65]), 247, as Triomphe de Bacchus et d’Ariane.

[Anna] Jameson, Handbook to the Public Galleries of Art in and near London: With Critical, Historical, and Biographical Notices of the Painters and Pictures, new ed. (London: John Murray, 1845), 72, erroneously as Duc de Montmorenci collection.

Œuvres Complètes de Nicolas Poussin, vol. 1 (1845; repr., Paris: Firmin Didot Frères, Fils et Cie, 1863), 7, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Catalogue of the Entire and Valuable Collection of Italian, Flemish, Dutch, and French Pictures, the Property of the Earl of Ashburnham (London: Christie and Manson, 1850), 15, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

[Antoine] J[ules] Dumesnil, Histoire des Plus Célèbres Amateurs Italiens et de leurs Relations avec les Artistes (Paris: Jules Renouard et Cie, 1853), 460.

The Art-Treasures Examiner: A Pictorial, Critical, and Historical Record of the Art-Treasures Exhibition, at Manchester, in 1857 (Manchester: Alexander Ireland, [1857]), 226, as Triumph of Bacchus.

E. T. B., What to See, and Where to See It! Or The Operative’s Guide to the Art Treasures Exhibition, Manchester, 1857 (Manchester: A. Ireland, 1857), 11, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Charles Blanc, Les Trésors de l’Art à Manchester (Paris: Pagnerre, 1857), 193, 205, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

W[illiam] Burger [Théophile Thoré-Bürger], Trésors d’Art Exposés à Manchester en 1857 et provenant des Collections Royales, des Collections Publiques et des Collections Particulières de la Grande-Bretagne (Paris: Jules Renouard, 1857), 330, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

W. Blanchard Jerrold, ed., Jerrold’s Guide to the Exhibition. How to See the Art Treasures Exhibition: A Guide, Systematically Arranged, to Enable Visitors to Take a View, at Once Rapid and Complete, of the Art Treasures Palace; with a Plan of the Palace, So Arranged as to Facilitate Reference to the Official Catalogue (Manchester: A. Ireland, 1857), 20, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition, Catalogue of the Art Treasures of the United Kingdom Collected at Manchester in 1857, exh. cat. ([London: Bradbury and Evans], 1857), 49, as Triumph of Bacchus.

G. S[charf], A Handbook to the Paintings by Ancient Masters in the Art Treasures Exhibition. Being a Reprint of Critical Notices Originally Published in “The Manchester Guardian” (London: Bradbury and Evans, 1857), 56, as Triumph of Bacchus.

[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen, The Manchester Exhibition; What to Observe: A Walk through the Art-Treasures Exhibition under the Guidance of Dr. Waagen: A Companion to the Official Catalogue (London: John Murray and W.H. Smith and Sons, 1857), 23, as Triumph of Bacchus.

H[ervé] Bouchitté, Le Poussin: Sa Vie et son Œuvre Suivi d’une Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Philippe de Champagne et de Champagne le Neveu (Paris: Didier et Cie, 1858), 58, 298.

Théodore Lejeune, Guide Théorique et Pratique de l’Amateur de Tableaux: Études sur les Imitateurs et les Copistes des Maitres de Toutes les Écoles dont les Œuvres Forment la Base Ordinaire des Galeries (Paris: Gide, 1863), 138, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIXe Siècle, vol. 2 (Paris: Administration du Grand Dictionnaire Universel, 1867), 19, 25–26, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

L[ouis] Clément de Ris, Les Musées de Province: Histoire et Description, 2nd ed. (Paris: Jules Renouard, 1872), 425–27.

Louis Moland, Œuvres Complètes de La Fontaine, new ed., vol. 7, Œuvres Diverses II (Paris: Garnier Frères, 1872–86), 262, 263n4.

Pierre Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIXe Siècle, vol. 13 (Paris: Administration du Grand Dictionnaire Universel, 1875), 12–13, 1187.

Ministère de l’Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts, Réunion des Société des Beaux-Arts des Départements à la Sorbonne Du 31 mars au 3 avril 1880 (Paris: E. Plon et Cie, 1881), 87.

Émile Bellier de la Chavignerie and Louis Auvray, Dictionnaire Général des Artistes de l’École Française depuis l’origine des arts du dessin jusqu’à nos jours (1882–87; repr., New York: Garland, 1979), 4:306.

Louis Gonse, “Exposition de Maîtres Anciens à la ‘Royal Academy’, de Londres,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 25, no. 297 (March 1, 1882): 290, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Edmond Bonnaffé, “Notes sur les Collections des Richelieu,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 26 (1882): 21, 21n1.

Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters, and by Deceased Masters of the British School, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy, 1882), 31, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Edmond Bonnaffé, Recherches sur les Collections des Richelieu (Paris: E. Plon et Cie, 1883), 34, 34n1.

J.-X. Carré de Busserolle, Dictionnaire Géographique, Historique et Biographique d’Indre-et-Loire et de l’Ancienne Province de Touraine, vol. 5 (1883; repr., Mayenne, France: Joseph Floch, 1966), 311.

Edmond Bonnaffé, Dictionnaire des Amateurs Français au XVIIe Siècle (1884; repr., Amsterdam: B.M. Israël, 1966), 271, 276, 346.

La Grande Encyclopédie: Inventaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Lettres et des Arts, eds. André Bérthelot et al., vol. 27 (Paris: Société Anonyme de la Grande Encyclopédie, [1885–1902]), 521, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

L.-A. Bossebœuf, “Excursion de la Société Archéologique à Chinon, Champigny et Richelieu (21 mai 1887),” Bulletin de la Société Archéologique de Touraine 7 (1886–1888): 265.

L. Dussieux et al., eds., Mémoires Inédits sur la Vie et les Ouvrages des Membres de l’Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, vol. 2 (Paris: Charavay Frères, 1887), 252.

George Redford, Art Sales: A History of Sales of Pictures and Other Works of Art with Notices of the Collections Sold, Names of Owners, Titles of Pictures, Prices and Purchasers, Arranged under the Artists of the Different Schools in Order of Date, including the Purchases and Prices of Pictures for the National Gallery, vol. 1 (London: Bradbury and Agnew, 1888), 146, as Triumph of Bacchus.

George Redford, Art Sales: A History of Sales of Pictures and Other Works of Art with Notices of the Collections Sold, Names of Owners, Titles of Pictures, Prices and Purchasers, Arranged under the Artists of the Different Schools in Order of Date, including the Purchases and Prices of Pictures for the National Gallery, vol. 2 (London: Bradbury and Agnew, 1888), 281, as The Triumph of Bacchus, erroneously as “painted for the Duc de Montmorenci.”

L.-A. Bossebœuf, Histoire de Richelieu et des Environs au Point de Vue Civil, Religieux et Artistique (Tours: L. Péricat, 1890), 195–96, 196n1, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Ministère de l’Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts, Inventaire Général des Richesses d’Art de la France: Province, vol. 5, Monuments Civils (Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie, 1891), 341.

Henri Regnier, Œuvres de J. de La Fontaine, new ed., vol. 9 (Paris: Hachette et Cie, 1892), 269, 269n5, 270n5.

Ph[ilippe] de Chennevières[-Pointel], Essais sur l’Histoire de la Peinture Français (Paris: Bureaux de L’Artiste, 1894), 120, 151, 216, 263–64.

W[illiam] Roberts, Memorials of Christie’s: A Record of Art Sales from 1766 to 1896 (1897; repr., Charleston, SC: Nabu Press, 2012), 1:160, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Elizabeth H. Denio, Nicolas Poussin: His Life and Work (London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company, 1899), 59, 64, 233, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Olivier Merson, La Peinture Française au XIIe Siècle et au XVIIIe (Paris: L.-H. May, 1900), 41.

Joshua Reynolds, Fifteen Discourses Delivered in the Royal Academy (London: J.M. Dent, [1906]), 108, 108n1, as Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

A. J. Finberg, A Complete Inventory of the Drawings of the Turner Bequest: With Which Are Included the Twenty-Three Drawings Bequeathed by Mr. Henry Vaughan, vol. 1 (London: Darling and Son, 1909), 184.

Otto Grautoff, “Letter to the Editor,” The Burlington Magazine 22, no. 116 (November 1912): 123.

H[ippolyte] Mireur, Dictionnaire des Ventes d’Art Faites en France et à l’Étranger pendant les XVIIIe et XIXe Siècles, vol. 6 (Paris: Maison d’Éditions d’Œuvres Artistiques, 1912), 60, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Konrad Ostrowski, “Malarstwo Francuskie w XVII Wieku,” Biblioteka Warszawska (June 1913): 563.

Algernon Graves, A Century of Loan Exhibitions, 1813–1912, vol. 2 (New York: Burt Franklin, 1913), 955, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Walter Friedlaender, “Nicolas Poussin als Zeichner,” Zeitschrift für Bildende Kunst 25, no. 12 (December 1914): 319.

Walter Friedlaender, Nicolas Poussin: Die Entwicklung seiner Kunst (Munich: R. Piper, 1914), 16, 66–68, 115–16, as Triumph des Bacchus.

Otto Grautoff, Nicolas Poussin: Sein Werk und sein Leben (Munich: Georg Müller, 1914), 1:154, 156; 2:144–45, (repro.), as Triumph des Bacchus.

Émile Magne, Nicolas Poussin, Premier Peintre du Roi, 1591–1665 (Documents Inédits): Suivi d’un Catalogue Raisonné et Accompagné de la Reproduction de 145 de ses Tableaux et Dessins, de Deux Portraits, Autographes et Autres Documents (Brussels: G. van Oest et Cie, 1914), 95, 95n2, 96, 199, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Paul Jamot, “Études sur Nicolas Poussin,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 4, no. 719 (August–September 1921): 93–97, 97n2, 99–100, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Algernon Graves, Art Sales from Early in the Eighteenth Century to Early in the Twentieth Century (Mostly Old Master and Early English Pictures), vol. 2 (1921; repr., New York: Burt Franklin, 1970), 345, 349, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Charles Martine, Nicolas Poussin: Cinquante Reproductions de Léon Marotte (Paris: Helleu et Sergent, 1921), unpaginated.

Léon Coutil, “Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665 (Études Iconographiques),” Recueil des Travaux de la Société Libre d’Agriculture, Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de l’Eure 1 (1923): 243, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Esther Sutro, Nicolas Poussin (Boston: Medici Society, 1923), 46.

Joshua Reynolds, The Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds (London: Macmillan, 1924), 113, as The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

Paul Alfassa, “Poussin et le Paysage,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 11, no. 757 (May 1925): 272.

Paul Jamot, “Nouvelles Études sur Nicolas Poussin à Propos de l’Exposition du Petit Palais,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 12, no. 759 (July–August 1925): 91–95, 98–100, 102–03, 106–08, 108n1, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Kurt Gerstenberg, “Die Ausstellung Französischer Landschaftsmalerei von Poussin bis Corot in Paris,” Kunst und Künstler 23, no. 12 (December 1925): 488.

Paul Jamot, “Sur Quelques Tableaux de Poussin à Propos de l’Exposition du Paysage Français,” Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire de l’Art Français (1925): 166–67, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Philip Hendy, “Nicolas Poussin: Some Pictures in the National Gallery and at Hertford House,” Apollo 3, no. 16 (April 1926): 219.

W. G. Constable, “French Painting in Amsterdam,” The Burlington Magazine 49, no. 284 (November 1926): 227.

Louis Dimier, Histoire de la Peinture Française du Retour de Vouet à la Mort de Lebrun, 1627 à 1690, vol. 1 (Paris: G. van Oest, 1926), 47.

Fédération Française des Artistes, Exposition Rétrospective d’Art Français: Catalogue, exh. cat., 2nd ed. (Amsterdam: Musée de l’État, 1926), 61.

Louis Hourticq et al., Le Paysage Français de Poussin à Corot à l’Exposition du Petit Palais, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions de la Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1926), 98, 135, as Le triomphe de Bacchus.

Otto Grautoff, “Neu aufgefundene Werke von Nicolas Poussin,” Der Kunstwanderer 10, nos. 1–2 (October 1928): 105–06.

Joseph Aynard, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1928), 48–49, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Émile Magne, Nicolas Poussin, Premier Peintre du Roi: Documents inédits (Paris: Éditions Émile-Paul Frères, 1928), 129, 129n1, 130, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Walter Friedlaender, “The Massimi Poussin Drawings at Windsor,” The Burlington Magazine 54, no. 312 (March 1929): 127.

Walter Friedlaender, “Catalogue of The Massimi Poussin Drawings at Windsor,” The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 54, no. 314 (May 1929): 254, as the Bacchus Triumph.

Pierre Courthion, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Plon, 1929), 41.

Gilles de la Tourette, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Éditions Rieder, 1929), 22.

Horace Hennion, Grande Semaine de Tours (10–18 Mai 1930): Exposition Rétrospective et Moderne: À la Gloire du Vin: Reconstitution de caves en Touraine: Exposition d’Œuvres et Objets d’Art, de Documents sur la Vigne et le Vin, exh. cat. (Tours: Arrault et Cie, 1930), 9, 11, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre du Colombier, Poussin (Paris: Éditions G. Crès et Cie, 1931), 7, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Hôtel de Ville de Tours, Grande Semaine de Tours (9–17 Mai 1931): Exposition Rétrospective (Première moitié du XVIIe siècle: Henri IV – Louis XIII): Reconstitution du Château de Richelieu: Exposition d’Œuvres et Objets d’Art, de Livres et Documents, exh. cat. (Tours: Arrault et Cie, 1931), 8, 12.

“Nelson Gallery is a Source of Delight to Art Experts,” The Kansas City Star (January 10, 1932), clipping, scrapbook, NAMA archives, vol. 1, p. 101, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“The Nelson Collection Grows,” The Kansas City Star 52, no. 120 (January 15, 1932): D.

“Art News,” Kansas City Journal-Post 78, no. 224 (January 17, 1932): 2C, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“View New Nelson Art: Purchases for Gallery Inspected by Institute Trustees,” The Kansas City Star 52, no. 122 (January 17, 1932): 8A, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“A Warning in Art Talk: Hearers Detect a Reminder in a Remark by Parsons,” The Kansas City Times 95, no. 16 (January 19, 1932): 3, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Two More Old Masters Acquired for the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art,” The Kansas City Star 52, no. 129 (January 24, 1932): 6, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Famous Picture for Kansas City,” Kansas City Journal-Post 78, no. 231 (January 24, 1932): 2C, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“Nelson Art Treasures Draw Admiring Throng: Thousands Flock to Temporary Exhibition of Paintings at the Kansas City Art Institute Every Day,” The Weekly Kansas City Star 42, no. 48 (January 27, 1932): 4.

“Four Old Masters for Collection in Kansas City,” The Art News 30, no. 18 (January 30, 1932): 12, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Kansas City Museum Acquires Nine More Works from Nelson Fund,” The Art Digest 6, no. 9 (February 1, 1932): 7, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

M[inna] K. P[owell], “Art: A Large Sunday Crowd at the Kansas City Art Institute Sees the Midwestern Show and Old Masters, Including Five Lent by Maxwell Blake,” Kansas City Times 95, no. 33 (February 8, 1932): 6, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Kansas City Now Possesses Masterpieces by Poussin and Claude,” The Art Digest 6, no. 10 (February 15, 1932): 32, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“Famous Poussin Added to Kansas City Collection,” The Art News 30, no. 21 (February 20, 1932): 13, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“A Strong Home for Art: Father Gerrer, a Connoisseur, Visits the Nelson Gallery,” The Kansas City Times 95, no. 47 (February 24, 1932): 6.

“Art: Two Noted European Scholars Visit the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Are Led to Comment Freely on the Comparative Value of the Paintings in the Collection,” The Kansas City Star 52, no. 185 (March 20, 1932): 11A.

“M. Claudel in Rich Land: A Desire to See Harvest Expressed by Ambassador,” The Kansas City Times 95, no. 70 (March 22, 1932): 11, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Otto Grautoff, “Nouveaux Tableaux de Nicolas Poussin,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 7 (May 1932): 335.

M[inna] K. P[owell], “A New Nelson Group: Paintings and Drawings Are Added to the Gallery,” Kansas City Star 52, no. 206 (April 10, 1932): 11A.

Royal Academy of Arts, Exhibition of French Art, 1200–1900, exh. cat. (London: Burlington House, 1932), 81.

Werner Weisbach, Französische Malerei des XVII. Jahrhunderts im Rahmen von Kultur und Gesellschaft (Berlin: Verlag Heinrich Keller, 1932), 154, 364n25.

“In Gallery and Studio,” Kansas City Star 53, no. 266 (June 10, 1933): 4.

M[inna] K. P[owell], “Art Shows the Layman Something He is Unable to See for Himself,” Kansas City Star 54, no. 49 (November 5, 1933): 8D.

Thomas Carr Howe, “Kansas City has Fine Art Museum: Nelson Gallery Ranks with the Best,” (ca. December 1933), clipping, scrapbook, NAMA Archives, vol. 5, p. 6.

“New Nelson Gallery of Art,” Connoisseur 92, no. 388 (December 1933): 419.

Pierre Domène, “Le nouveau musée de Kansas City,” Beaux-Arts 72, no. 48 (December 1, 1933): 2.

“Nelson Gallery of Art Special Number,” Art Digest 8, no. 5 (December 1, 1933): 13, 18, 22, 25, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“American Art Notes,” Connoisseur 92, no. 388 (December 2, 1933): 419.

“Complete Catalogue of Paintings and Drawings,” Art News 32, no. 10 (December 9, 1933): 28, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Alfred M. Frankfurter, “Paintings in the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art,” Art News 32, no. 10 (December 9, 1933): 30, 43, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Minna K. Powell, “The First Exhibition of the Great Art Treasures: Paintings and Sculpture, Tapestries and Panels, Period Rooms and Beautiful Galleries Are Revealed in the Collections Now Housed in the Nelson-Atkins Museum,” Kansas City Star 54, no. 84 (December 10, 1933): 4C, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“‘The Triumph of Bacchus’ by Nicholas Poussin (1594–1665),” Kansas City Star 54, no. 84 (December 10, 1933): 11, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“Nelson Gallery of Art Opened at Kansas City: $14,000,000 Gift of ‘Star’ Publisher and His Heirs Already Fully Furnished,” New York Herald Tribune 93, no. 31,802 (December 11, 1933): 12, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Luigi Vaiani, “Art Dream Becomes Reality with Official Gallery Opening at Hand: Critic Views Wide Collection of Beauty as Public Prepares to Pay its First Visit to Museum,” Kansas City Journal-Post 80, no. 187 (December 11, 1933): 7, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Kansas City’s New Museum,” New York Sun 101, no. 86 (December 12, 1933): 28.

“Nelson Trust,” (December 18, 1933), clipping, scrapbook, NAMA archives, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Praises the Gallery: Dr. Nelson M’Cleary, Noted Artist, a Visitor,” Kansas City Star 54, no. 98 (December 24, 1933): 9A, as Triumph of Bacchus.

George Vertue, “Vertue’s Note Book, B. 4,” in “Vertue Note Books: Volume III,” special issue, Walpole Society 22 (1933–1934): 105, 117, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Handbook of the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1933), 40, 42, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Hans Vollmer, ed., Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 27 (Leipzig: Verlag von E. A. Seemann, 1933), 325, as Triumph des Bacchus.

A. J. Philpott, “Kansas City Now in Art Center Class: Nelson Gallery, Just Opened, Contains Remarkable Collection of Paintings, Both Foreign and American,” Boston Sunday Globe 125, no. 14 (January 14, 1934): 16, as Triumph of Bacchus.

M[inna] K. P[owell], “In Gallery and Studio,” Kansas City Star 54, no. 125 (January 20, 1934): 5.

“Art,” Kansas City Star 54, no. 231 (May 6, 1934): 14A, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“A Thrill to Art Expert: M. Jamot is Generous in his Praise of Nelson Gallery,” Kansas City Times 97, no. 247 (October 15, 1934): 7.

“Museums, Art Associations and Other Organizations,” in “For the Year 1933,” American Art Annual 30 (1934): 175, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Woman’s Club Calendar,” Kansas City Star 55, no. 111 (January 6, 1935): 11C, as Triumph of Bacchus.

John Thompson, “Notes on Canvas: In the Art World,” Indianapolis Times 47, no. 46 (May 3, 1935): 6, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“News from Abroad,” News Flashes (The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 1, no. 14 (September 1935): 4, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Gallery Links Abroad: Paul Gardner Tells of his Discoveries in Brussels,” Kansas City Times 98, no. 261 (October 31, 1935): 3.

Louis Gillet, La Peinture de Poussin à David, 2nd ed. (Paris: Henri Laurens, 1935), 64, 64n1, 68, 448, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Louis Batiffol, “Le Château de Richelieu,” Revue des Deux Mondes 34 (July 15, 1936): 333, 339, 344, as le Triomphe de Bacchus.

“Visitors,” News Flashes (The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 3, no. 6 (April 1–30, 1937): 4.

Louis Batiffol, Autour de Richelieu (Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1937), 166–67, 177, as le triomphe de Bacchus.

Louis Hourticq, La Jeunesse de Poussin (Paris: Hachette, 1937), 268.

Ellis K. Waterhouse, “Seventeenth-Century Art in Europe at Burlington House,” The Burlington Magazine 72, no. 418 (January 1938): 4.

Catalogue of the Exhibition of 17th Century Art in Europe, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1938), 132, 174, as Triumph of Bacchus.

G.-J. Gros, “La collection Paul Jamot,” Beaux-Arts, no. 301 (October 7, 1938): 4.

Georges Huisman, ed., Histoire générale de l’art, vol. 3 (Paris: Aristide Quillet, 1938), 301.

Walter Friedlaender, “Poussin’s Bacchanals for Richelieu,” Art News 37, no. 40 (September 16, 1939): 9, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“A Great Newspaper Builds a Great Art Museum,” Life 7, no. 15 (October 9, 1939): 53, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Gabriel Hanotaux and [Duc de] La Force, “Richelieu et les Arts II: La Peinture et la Musique,” Revue des Deux Mondes 53 (October 15, 1939): 661.

Sofie-Charlotte Emmerling, Antikenverwendung und Antikenstudien bei Nicolas Poussin (Würzburg: Konrad Triltsch Verlag, 1939), 11, 40, 68, 71, as Triumph des Bacchus.

“Loans to Other Galleries,” Gallery News (The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 6, no. 5 (March 1940): 7, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Walter Friedländer, “America’s First Poussin Show: The Great Classicist Illustrated by His Cisatlantic Works,” The Art News 38, no. 23 (March 9, 1940): 10–11, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Nicolas Poussin,” exh. cat., The Art News 38, no. 23 (March 9, 1940): unpaginated insert, Frick Art Reference Library, New York, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“Gallery Opens A Loan Exhibit of Poussin Art: 11 American-Owned Works by 17th Century French Painter Placed on View,” New York Herald Tribune 99, no. 34,086 (March 13, 1940): 21, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Edward Alden Jewell, “Poussin Canvases Put on Exhibition: Eleven Pictures of the French Classicist Are Being Shown at Durlachers Gallery,” The New York Times 89, no. 29,999 (March 13, 1940): 20, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Emily Genauer, “Poussin Work Reveals Him an Extremely Gifted Artist: His First One-Man Show Here Offers Opportunity for Thorough Reappraisal,” New York World-Telegram (March 16, 1940): 13, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Edward Alden Jewell, “Emotion and Controlled Statement: Poussin Paintings at Durlacher’s Represent Important Phases of the Great French Artist,” The New York Times 89, no. 30,008 (March 17, 1940): 139, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“The Art of France: A Classicist,” The New York Times 89, no. 30,010 (March 24, 1940): 102, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Robert M. Coates, “The Art Galleries: Renaissance Portraits, Poussin, Some Moderns,” The New Yorker (March 30, 1940): 37, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Exhibition Reviews,” Magazine of Art 33, no. 4 (April 1940): 225, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Elizabeth McCausland, “Exhibitions in New York,” Parnassus 12, no. 4 (April 1940): 34, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“Gallery Notes,” Gallery News (The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 6, no. 8 (Summer 1940): 7, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Edward Alden Jewell, “American-Owned Works: The 1940 Exhibition of Painting Traverses Period from 1500 to Twentieth Century,” The New York Times 89, no. 30,080 (June 2, 1940): 127.

An Exhibition of Great Paintings in aid of the Canadian Red Cross and of Small Pictures by Members of the Ontario Society of Artists, exh. cat. (Toronto: Art Gallery of Toronto, 1940), 11, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Walter Pach et al., Catalogue of European and American Paintings, 1500–1900, exh. cat. (New York: Art Aid Corporation, 1940), 44–45, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

H. B., “Bibliographie Régionale: À propos du château de Richelieu,” Bulletin: Les Amis du Vieux Chinon 4, no. 6 (1941): 306.

J[ean] B[abelon], “Exposition de la Donation Paul Jamot,” L’Illustration, no. 5120 (April 26, 1941): 436.

The William Rockhill Nelson Collection, 2nd ed. (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1941), 40, 44, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Herma M. Van den Berg, “Willem Schellinks en Lambert Doomer in Frankrijk,“ Oudheidkundig Jaarboek (1942): 17, 17n49.

[Jean] Vergnet-Ruiz, “Les Récentes Acquisitions du Musée du Louvre: Au Département des Peintures, la Donation Paul Jamot,” Revue des Beaux-Arts de France, no. 4 (April–May 1943): 202.

H. Carrington Lancaster, “The Château de Richelieu and Desmaretz’s ‘Visionnaires,’” Modern Language Notes 60, no. 3 (March 1945): 170.

Anthony Blunt, The French Drawings in the Collection of His Majesty the King at Windsor Castle (Oxford: Phaidon, 1945), 8, 37, 40–41, 47.

André Gide, Poussin ([Paris]: Divan, [1945]), unpaginated, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Thérèse Bertin-Mourot, “Les bacchanales du château de Richelieu,” Arts, Beaux-arts, Littérature, Spectacles, no. 70 (May 31, 1946): 1, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Martin Davies, French School, 2nd ed. (1946; London: National Gallery, 1957), 173, 174n6, 187–90, 190n9, 191n17, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Masterpiece of the Month,” Gallery News (The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 13, no. 7 (April 1947): unpaginated, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Dorothy Adlow, “Art in Kansas City: Music and Theaters; Exhibitions in San Francisco; Masterpieces of Many Schools To Be Seen in Nelson Gallery,” The Christian Science Monitor 40, no. 197 (July 17, 1948): 12.

Bernard Dorival, “Une Bacchanale de Poussin à Madrid,” Bulletin de la Société Poussin 2 (December 1948): 40–42, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Paul Jamot, Connaissance de Poussin (Paris: Floury, 1948), 54–55, 55n3, 56, 56n4, 57–58, 58n1, 59–61, 61n4, 62–67, 65n1, 67n1, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Fiske Kimball and Lionello Venturi, Great Paintings in America (New York: Coward-McCann, 1948), 128.

Anthony Blunt, “The Literature of Art: Nicolas Poussin,” The Burlington Magazine 91, no. 561 (December 1949): 356.

The William Rockhill Nelson Collection, 3rd ed. (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1949), 58–59, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

F. M. Godfrey, “Baccanale e Giardino d’Amore,” The Connoisseur 126, no. 519 (January 1951): 180–81, as Triumph of Bachus.

David M. Robb, The Harper History of Painting: The Occidental Tradition (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1951), 612, 623.

Jean Vergnet-Ruiz, Les Peintures de Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Éditions Albert Morancé, [1951]), 18.

The Arts Council of Great Britain, French Drawings from Fouquet to Gauguin, exh. cat. (London: Curwen Press, 1952), 77.

Anthony Blunt and Walter Friedlaender, eds., The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin: Catalogue Raisonné, vol. 3, Mythological Subjects (Warburg Institute: London, 1953), 23, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Theodore Sizer, ed. The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, Patriot-Artist, 1756–1843 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953), 98, as Bacchanals.

Jean Vallery-Radot, Le Dessin Français au XVIIe siècle, exh. cat. (Lausanne: Éditions Mermod, 1953), 189–90.

Anthony Blunt, Art and Architecture in France, 1500 to 1700 (Baltimore: Penguin, 1954), 186, 219n203.

René Crozet, La Vie Artistique en France au XVIIe Siècle (1598–1661): Les Artistes et la Société (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1954), 92, 96.

Fred Stephen Licht, Die Entwicklung der Landschaft in den Werken von Nicolas Poussin (Basel: Verlag Birkhäuser, 1954), 112, 128–29, as Triumph des Bacchus, erroneously as located in St. Louis.

Marc Sandoz, “Autour de Poussin au Musée des Beaux-Arts de Poitiers: Une Version Ancienne Retrouvée du ‘Triomphe de Bacchus,’” Dibutade 1 (1954): 14, 15, 15n1, 15n2, 15n3, 15n4, 16, 16n5, 16n6, 17–18, 18n20, 20–21, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Winifred Shields, “Among the New Acquisitions of the Nelson Gallery of Art,” Kansas City Star 75, no. 226 (May 1, 1955): 10F.

French Drawings: Masterpieces from Seven Centuries, exh. cat. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1955), 19.

Georges Wildenstein, “Les Graveurs de Poussin au XVIIe Siècle,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 46, nos. 1040–43 (September–December 1955): 277, 279 [repr., in Georges Wildenstein, Les Graveurs de Poussin au XVIIe Siècle (Paris: Les Beaux-Arts, 1957), 197, 199].

A. Pigler, Barockthemen: Eine Auswahl von Verzeichnissen zur Ikonographie des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, vol. 2, Profane Darstellungen (Budapest: Verlag der Ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1956), 44.

Venetian Tradition, exh. cat. (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1956), 12, 28–29, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Ross E. Taggart, “Kansas City Art,” Library Journal 82, no. 12 (June 15, 1957): 1596, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Jean Alazard, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665 (Milan: Electa, 1957), (repro.), as Il trionfo di Bacco.

Trends in Painting, 1600–1800, exh. cat. (Buffalo, NY: Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1957), 14–15, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, “The Artist’s Pictures Come to America,” The Art News 57, no. 9 (January 1959): 33, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Walter Friedlaender, “The Artist Engraved for Posterity,” The Art News 57, no. 9 (January 1959): 37.

Malcolm Vaughan, “Poussin in America,” The Connoisseur 143, no. 576 (April 1959): 126, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin Studies VIII: A Series of Anchorite Subjects Commissioned by Philip IV from Poussin, Claude and Others,” The Burlington Magazine 101, no. 680 (November 1959): 390.

Anthony Blunt and Walter Friedlaender, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Minneapolis: Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, 1959), 8, 10, 19–20, 26–27, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Ross E. Taggart, ed., Handbook of the Collections in the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 4th ed. (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1959), 105, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

R. F. C., “Minneapolis: Poussin nei musei americani,” Emporium 131, no. 784 (April 1960): 187, 189, (repro.), as Trionfo di Bacco.

“Treasures of Kansas City,” The Connoisseur 145, no. 584 (April 1960): 123, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Anatomy and Art,” exh. cat., special issue, Bulletin (The Nelson Gallery and Atkins Museum) 3, no. 1 (Spring 1960): 27, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, “Colloque Nicolas Poussin. Publié sous la Direction de André Chastel,” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 688 (July 1960): 330, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Du Colombier, “The Poussin Exhibition,” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 688 (July 1960): 284.

Denis Mahon, “Poussin’s Early Development: An Alternative Hypothesis,” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 688 (July 1960): 299n88, 303, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Denis Mahon, “Mazarin and Poussin,” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 689 (August 1960): 354.

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin et les Cérémonies Religieuses Antiques,” La Revue des Arts 10 (1960): 57, 64.

Tony Sauvel, “À Propos du Château de Richelieu,” Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de l’Ouest et des Musées de Poitiers 5 (1960): 691.

Doris Wild, “Poussin-Studien zum ersten Jahrzehnt in Rom,” Pantheon 18, no. 3 (1960): 157.

André Chastel, ed., Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1960), 1:31–33, 33n7, 34, 103n120, 131, 267, 292, 304; 2:56–57, 57n1, 95–96, 96n4, 100n3, 116–17, 124n7, 166, 166n3, 214, 244, 288, 298, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Paul Jamot, Petit Discours sur l’Art Français ([Paris]: Albert Morancé, [1960]), viii–xi.

Musée du Louvre, Nicolas Poussin, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions des Musées Nationaux, 1960), 79–80, 83, 126, 152–53, 229–31, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Eloise Spaeth, American Art Museums and Galleries: An Introduction to Looking (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960), 157, 159, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Antoine Schnapper, “La question Poussin,” L’Information d’Histoire de l’Art, no. 3 (May–June 1961): 88.

Michael Kitson, “The Relationship between Claude and Poussin in Landscape,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 24, no. 2 (1961): 145.

A. J. Finberg, The Life of J. M. W. Turner, R.A., 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), 89.

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, Nicolas Poussin et son Temps: Le Classicisme Français et Italien Contemporain de Poussin, exh. cat. ([Paris]: Éditions des Musées Nationaux, 1961), VI, 38, 57, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Gerald Reitlinger, The Economics of Taste: The Rise and Fall of the Picture Market, 1760–1960 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961), 20,

Denis Mahon, “Poussiniana: Afterthoughts Arising from the Exhibition,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 60, nos. 1122–23 (July–August 1962), 95, 100, 100n290, 101, 101n290, 104–05, as Triumph of Bacchus [repr., in Denis Mahon, Poussiniana: Afterthoughts Arising from the Exhibition (Paris: Éditions de la Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1962), XII, 95, 100, 100n290, 101, 101n290, 104–05, as Triumph of Bacchus].

Ellis Waterhouse, “Poussin Studies,” The Burlington Magazine 104, no. 717 (December 1962): 547.

Jerrold Ziff, “Turner and Poussin,” The Burlington Magazine 105, no. 724 (July 1963): 316n18, 319n21, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Réné Crozet, “Le Mécénat Artistique de Richelieu en Poitou,” Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de l’Ouest et des Musées de Poitiers 7 (1963): 14.

Michael Levey, “Poussin’s ‘Neptune and Amphitrite’ at Philadelphia: A Re-Identification Rejected,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 26 (1963): 360.

Charles Gates Dempsey, “Nicolas Poussin and the Natural Order” (PhD diss., Princeton University, 1963), ii, ix, 8, 10, 91–92, 219–24, 231, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Charles Le Brun, 1619–1690: Peintre et Dessinateur, exh. cat. (Versailles: Château de Versailles, 1963), xxvi.

А. С. Гликман [A. S. Glikman], Никола Пуссен [Nicolas Poussin] (Leningrad: Искусство [Iskusstvo], 1964), 39, as Tpиумф Baкxa.

C. V. Wedgwood, “For the Glory of France,” Horizon 7, no. 3 (Summer 1965): 26–27, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Charles Dempsey, “Poussin’s ‘Marine Venus’ at Philadelphia: A Re-Identification Accepted,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 28 (1965): 341, 341n16, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Walter Friedlaender, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Éditions Cercle d’Art, 1965), 40, 43, 45, 88, 126, 130, 133, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Guillaume Janneau, La Peinture française au XVIIe siècle (Geneva: Pierre Cailler, 1965), 117.

Charles Dempsey, “The Classical Perception of Nature in Poussin’s Earlier Work,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 29 (1966), 242–244, 244n79, 245–48, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Charles Dempsey, “The Textual Sources of Poussin’s ‘Marine Venus’ in Philadelphia,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 29 (1966): 442, 442n24.

Anthony Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas Poussin: A Critical Catalogue (London: Phaidon, 1966), no. 137, pp. 95–98, 162, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

[Ange Marie] Caudal, Lettres de La Fontaine à sa Femme ou Relation d’un Voyage de Paris en Limousin (Paris: Centre de Documentation Universitaire, 1966), 63, 139n85, 140n85, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Walter Friedlaender, Nicolas Poussin: A New Approach (New York: Henry N. Abrams, [1966]), 44, 49, 91, 130, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Joshua Reynolds, Discourses on Art ([1966]; repr., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997), xi, 125, 125n278, 147, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

Pierre Rosenberg, Inventaire des Collections Publiques Françaises, vol. 14, Rouen, Musée des Beaux-Arts: Tableaux Françaises du XVIIème Siècle et Italiens des XVIIème et XVIIIème Siècles (Paris: Éditions des Musées Nationaux, 1966), 107, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Ewald M. Vetter and Regula Langbehn, “Poussins Bacchusbild im Stockholmer Nationalmuseum,” Ruperto-Carola: Zeitschrift der Vereinigung der Freunde der Studentenschaft der Universität Heidelberg 19, no. 41 (June 1967), 143–44, 146n41, (repro.), as Triumph des Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC: Text (London: Phaidon, 1967), 135, 135n62, 137–38, 141, 144, 146, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC: Plates (London: Phaidon, 1967), unpaginated, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Catalogue of Old Master Drawings […]and An interesting series of views of Towns in Italy and Sicily Attributed to Francesco Zucchi (London: Sotheby, 1968), 7, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg, Mostra di Disegni Francesi da Callot a Ingres, exh. cat. (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1968), 25, as Trionfi di Bacco.

Tatiana Kamenskaya. “Further Remarks on Poussin Drawings in the Hermitage,” Master Drawings 7, no. 4 (Winter 1969): 426, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Ellis Waterhouse, “Blunt’s Poussin,” The Burlington Magazine 111, no. 793 (April 1969): 225, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Oreste Ferrari, “Le nuove vie degli studi sul Seicento,” Storia dell’arte 1/2 (1969), 115, as Trionfo di Bacco.

Kurt Badt, Die Kunst des Nicolas Poussin: Tafeln (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1969), (repro.), as Triumph des Bacchus.

Kurt Badt, Die Kunst des Nicolas Poussin: Text (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1969), 62, 73, 529–30, 536, as Triumph des Bacchus.

Daniel Le Comte, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665: de l’antique au cubisme (Paris: Éditions du Sénevé, 1969), 12.

Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Novara, Italy: Edizioni per il Club del Libro, 1969), 20, 20n13, 63, 63n46, 111–12, 218, 296, (repro.), as Trionfo di Bacco.

H. W. van Helsdingen, “Poussin’s Drawings for the Crossing of the Red Sea,” trans. C. E. Meijer-Mollison, Simiolus 5, nos. 1–2 (1971): 71, 71n23, 72n27.

Tatiana Kamenskaïa, Les Dessins de Poussin dans les collections de l’Ermitage, ed. I. Novosselskaïa (Leningrad: Abpopa [Aurora], 1971), 13, as Tpиумф Baкxa.

Heinfried Wischermann, Schloss Richelieu: Studien zu Baugsechichte und Ausstattung (Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Gutenbergdruckerei Robert Oberkirch, 1971), 53, 73, 164n236, 176n325, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

A. P. de Mirimonde, “Poussin et la Musique,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 79, no. 1238 (March 1972): 142.

Ralph T. Coe, “The Baroque and Rococo in France and Italy,” Apollo 96, no. 130 (December 1972): 533–35, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus [repr., in Denys Sutton, ed., William Rockhill Nelson Gallery, Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City (London: Apollo Magazine, 1972), 65–67, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus].

Louis Auchincloss, Richelieu (New York: Viking, 1972), 210–11, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Richelieu ([Paris]: Hachette, 1972), 186–87, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg, French Master Drawings of the 17th and 18th Centuries in North American Collections, trans. Catherine Johnston, exh. cat. (London: Martin Secker and Warburg, 1972), 197–98, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Donald Hoffmann, “The Nelson Gallery 40 Years (and More) Seeking Beauty,” The Kansas City Star 94, no. 83 (December 9, 1973): 4E, as Bacchus.

C. M. Kauffmann, Catalogue of Foreign Paintings, vol. 1*, Before 1800* (London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1973), 229, as *The Triumph of Bacchus*.

Les muses, vol. 11 (Paris: Grange Batelière, 1973), 3770, as le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Ross E. Taggart and George L. McKenna, eds., Handbook of the Collections in the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Missouri, vol. 1, Art of the Occident, 5th ed. (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1973), 126, 184, 258, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Elizabeth Cropper, “Virtue’s Wintry Reward: Pietro Testa’s Etching of the ‘Seasons’,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 37 (1974): 250, 254, 254n22, 257–58, 258n36, 259, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Walter Friedlaender and Anthony Blunt, eds., The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin: Catalogue Raisonné, vol. 5, Drawings after the Antique, Miscellaneous Drawings, Addenda (London: Warburg Institute, 1974), 106–07, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Jacques Thuillier, L’Opéra completa di Poussin (Milan: Rizzoli, 1974), no. 91, pp. 96–97, 129, (repro.), as Il Trionfo di Bacco.

Elizabeth Cropper, “The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin: Catalogue Raisonné,” Master Drawings 13, no. 3 (Autumn 1975): 284, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Candace Adelson, “Nicolas Poussin et les tableaux du Studiolo d’Isabella d’Este,” La revue de Louvre et des Musées de France, no. 4 (1975): 237–38, 240, 241n13, 241n15, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Sylvie Béguin, ed., Le Studiolo d’Isabelle d’Este, exh. cat. (Paris: Édition des Musées Nationaux, 1975), 61–62, 64, 78n288.

A. P. de Mirimonde, L’Iconographie Musicale sous les Rois Bourbons: La musique dans les arts plastiques (XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles), vol. 1 (Paris: Éditions A. et J. Picard et Cie, 1975), 83, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, “The Massimi Collection of Poussin Drawings in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle,” Master Drawings 14, no. 1 (Spring 1976): 5, 22, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Giovan Pietro Bellori, Le Vite de’ Pittori, Scultori e Architetti Moderni, ed. Evelina Borea (Turin: Giulio Einaudi, 1976), 437, 437n2, as Trionfo di Bacco.

H. James Jensen, The Muses’ Concord: Literature, Music, and the Visual Arts in the Baroque Age (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), 175, 178, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Richard Frank Verdi, “Poussin’s Critical Fortunes: The Study of the Artist and the Criticism of His Works from c. 1690 to c. 1830 with Particular Reference to France and England,” vol. 1 (PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, 1976), 313, as Triumph of Bacchus.

John Walker, Joseph Mallord William Turner (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1976), 22.

Clovis Whitfield, “Nicolas Poussin’s ‘Orage’ and ‘Temps Calme’,” The Burlington Magazine 119, no. 886 (January 1977): 7.

Accademia di Francia a Roma, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Rome: Edizioni dell’Elefante, 1977), 16, 82, 167–70, (repro.), as Le triomphe de Bacchus.

André Chastel, “À la Villa Médicis: Le retour de Poussin,” (ca. November 1977), clipping, Musée du Louvre Documentation Center, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

John Rupert Martin, Baroque (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), 303n8, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Jean-François Barrielle, “Richelieu: les collections d’un mécène fastueux,” L’Estampille, no. 94 (February 1978): 47.

S. J. Freedberg, “Lorenzo Lotto to Nicolas Poussin,” Apollo 107, no. 195 (May 1978): 397.

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin at Rome and Düsseldorf,” The Burlington Magazine 120, no. 903 (June 1978): 422, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Erich Schleier, “Die Poussin-Ausstellung in Rom und Düsseldorf,” Kunstchronik, no. 7 (July 1978): 285–86, as Triumph des Bacchus.

Honor Levi, “Richelieu and the Arts: His Houses and Gardens: His Iconography,” vol. 1 (PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1978), 31–33, 33n4, 149.

Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), exh. cat. (Düsseldorf: Städtische Kunsthalle, 1978), 9, 56, 102–03, (repro.), as Triumph des Bacchus.

Robert H. Terte, “The Phenomenal Nelson Gallery,” Antiques World 1, no. 3 (January 1979): 46.

Clovis Whitfield, “Poussin’s Early Landscapes,” The Burlington Magazine 121, no. 910 (January 1979): 13, 16, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, “Further Newly Identified Drawings by Poussin and His Followers,” Master Drawings 17, no. 2 (Summer 1979): 137–38, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Thomas Worthen, “Poussin’s Paintings of Flora,” The Art Bulletin 61, no. 4 (December 1979): 384n44, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Colleen Cordes, “Art Historian-Spy Challenged Authenticity of Nelson Painting,” The Kansas City Times 112, no. 83 (December 13, 1979): 16D, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, The Drawings of Poussin (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979), 8, 99, 101, 195n19, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Michel Laclotte and Jean-Pierre Cuzin, eds., Petit Larousse de la Peinture, vol. 2 (Paris: Larousse, 1979), 1495, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

John D. Morse, Old Master Paintings in North America: Over 3000 Masterpieces by 50 Great Artists (New York: Abbeville, 1979), 204–06, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

John E. Schloder, “Un artiste oublié: Nicolas Prévost, peintre de Richelieu,” Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire de l’Art français (1980): 60, 67n17.

Gail S. Davidson, “Jacques Stella and the Development of the Classical Style in Paris, 1634–1643” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 1980), v–vi, xii, 91–92, 97–100, 104, 106–10, 112–15, 118–22, 123n1, 124n5, 124n6, 126n20, 126n22, 126n23, 127n28, 127n29, 128n30, 130n40, 132n44, 132n50, 133n57, 133n58, 136n75, 296, 298, 300–01, 304n13, 305n13, 402, 404, 409, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Enrollment of the Volunteers: Thomas Couture and the Painting of History, exh. cat. (Springfield, MA: Springfield Library and Museums Association, 1980), 44–45, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Francis Haskell, Patrons and Painters: A Study in the Relations Between Italian Art and Society in the Age of the Baroque, rev. ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1980), 175.

Janina Michałkowa, Nicolas Poussin (Leipzig: E. A. Seemann, 1980), 24, 28, 33–34, 37, (repro.), as Triumph des Bacchus.

Doris Wild, Nicolas Poussin (Zurich: Orell Füssli Verlag, 1980), 1:23, 62–63, 63n4, 64, 89, 183, 198, 200, 211, 215; 2:66–69, 208, 243, 262, 264, 317, (repro.), as Triumph des Bacchus.

Ewald M. Vetter, “Doris Wild, ‘Nicolas Poussin’ I and II, Orell-Füssli-Verlag, Zürich 1980,” Pantheon 39, no. 3 (July-September 1981): 288.

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin and the British Collectors,” Connoisseur 208, no. 836 (October 1981): 120, as Triumph of Bacchus.

David Howarth, “Grave and Doric Poussin: ‘Sacraments and Bacchanals’ Exhibition,” Country Life 170, no. 4393 (October 29, 1981): 1460, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Neil MacGregor, “Poussin in Edinburgh,” Art and Artists, no. 182 (November 1981): 10, 13, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Richard Wollheim, “The Most Poetical of Painters,” The Times Literary Supplement, no. 4103 (November 20, 1981): 1365.

Charlotte Haenlein, “Poussin in Edinburg,” Du, no. 490 (December 1981): 100–01.

André Chastel, “Bacchanales juridiques: Après l’Exposition à Édimbourg,” Le Monde, no. 11,479 (December 25, 1981): 1, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Mary O’Neill, Les Peintures de l’École Française des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: Catalogue critique, vol. 1 (Orléans: Musée des Beaux-Arts, 1981), 117–18, as Le triomphe de Bacchus.

Claire Pace, Félibien’s Life of Poussin (London: A. Zwemmer, 1981), 85, 105n14, 116, 155n27.2.

Poussin Sacraments and Bacchanals: Paintings and Drawings on Sacred and Profane Themes by Nicholas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Edinburgh: Trustees of the National Galleries of Scotland, 1981), 12, 37–38, 44, 48, 52–54, 56, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Jon Whiteley, “Poussin in Edinburgh,” Art International 25, nos. 3–4 (March–April 1982): 58–59, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Hugh Brigstocke, “Poussin in Edinburgh,” The Burlington Magazine 124, no. 949 (April 1982): 239–40, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg, “Edinburgh: Poussin Considered,” The Burlington Magazine 124, no. 951 (June 1982): 379, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Anthony Blunt, “French Seventeenth-Century Painting: The Literature of the Last Ten Years,” The Burlington Magazine 124, no. 956 (November 1982): 706–07, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Chère orgie,” Connaissance des arts, no. 369 (November 1982): 46, as Triomphe de Bacchus.  

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin: Sacraments and Bacchanals. Paintings and Drawings on Sacred and Profane Themes by Nicolas Poussin 1594–1665 (October 16–December 13, 1981),” French Studies 36 (1982): 327-28, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Hugh Brigstocke, William Buchanan and the 19th Century Art Trade: 100 Letters to His Agents in London and Italy (London: Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 1982), 153–04, 496, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Robert Fohr, Tours, musée des Beaux-Arts; Richelieu, musée municipal; Azay-Le-Ferron, château: Tableaux français et italiens du XVIIe siècle (Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1982), 63, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg, France in the Golden Age: Seventeenth-Century French Paintings in American Collections, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982), 31–32, 308–09, 369, 378, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Hugh Brigstocke, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Pan’ and ‘Rape of the Sabines’: A Comparison of Two Masterpieces in the Classical Style,” Art International 26, no. 4 (September–October 1983), 12–14, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Michael Wilson, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Pan’,” National Art-Collections Fund Review (1983): 86, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Donald Hoffmann, “A fresh look at the Nelson: Painting, rearranging give new perspective to exhibits,” The Kansas City Star 104, no. 78 (December 18, 1983): 3-I, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Tom L. Freudenheim, ed., American Museum Guides: Fine Arts; A Critical Handbook to the Finest Collections in the United States (New York: Collier, 1983), 112, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Sarah Ferrell, “What’s Doing in Kansas City,” The New York Times 133, no. 46,022 (April 22, 1984): xx15, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Albert Henrichs, “Loss of Self, Suffering, Violence: The Modern View of Dionysus from Nietzsche to Girard,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 88 (1984): 215n19, as Triumph of Dionysus.

Elizabeth Cropper, Ideal of Painting: Pietro Testa’s Düsseldorf Notebook (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), 46, 47n210, 55, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Chancellerie des Universités de Paris et Académie française, Richelieu et le Monde de l’Esprit, exh. cat. (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1985), 39, 47, 108, 115, 126.

Paul Fréart de Chantelou, Diary of the Cavaliere Bernini’s Visit to France, ed. Anthony Blunt, trans. Margery Corbett (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985), 78, 78n122, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Jack Lindsay, Turner: The Man and His Art (New York: Franklin Watts, 1985), 38.

The National Gallery Report: January 1982–December 1984 (London: National Gallery, 1985), 18, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Paola Santucci, Poussin: Tradizione Ermetica e Classicismo Gesuita (Salerno: Cooperativa, 1985), 27–30, 32, 132, (repro.), as Trionfo di Bacco.

Michael Wilson, French Paintings before 1800 (London: National Gallery, 1985), 28, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Christopher Wright, The French Painters of the Seventeenth Century (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985), 66, 76, 243, 249, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Christopher Wright, Masterpieces of Reality: French 17th Century Painting, exh. cat. (Leicester: Leicestershire Museums, Art Galleries and Records Service, 1985), 2, 28–29, 140, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Christopher Wright, Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné (London: Harlequin Books, 1985), no. 81, pp. 35, 42, 50, 52–54, 56–58, 75, 90, 94, 99, 139, 166, 176, 178–79, 185, 189, 251, 265, 274, 278, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Jacob Kainen, “Remembering John Graham,” Arts Magazine 61, no. 3 (November 1986): 29–31, 31n7, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Ronald Lightbown, Mantegna: With a Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, Drawings and Prints (Oxford: Phaidon, 1986), 442.

Donald Hoffmann, “Throwing Suspicion on the Masters: Nelson’s Curator Reassesses Status, Authenticity of Art,” The Kansas City Star 107, no. 263 (July 26, 1987): 6D, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Alain Mérot, Eustache Le Sueur (1616–1655) (Paris: Arthena, 1987), 90, 102n288, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Richard Wollheim, Painting as an Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1987), 367n23, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Hugh Brigstocke, “Depicting the Divine in Nature,” The Times Literary Supplement, no. 4465 (October 28–November 3, 1988): 1204, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Elizabeth Cropper, “Fort Worth: Early Poussin,” The Burlington Magazine 130, no. 1029 (December 1988): 962, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Carlo del Bravo, “Letture di Poussin e Claude,” Artibus et Historiae 9, no. 18 (1988): 160, 167n92, as Trionfo di Bacco.

Elizabeth Cropper, Pietro Testa, 1612–1650: Prints and Drawings, exh. cat. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1988), 155–56, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Ellen R. Goheen, The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1988), 12, 54, 58, 60, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Marie Montembault and John Schloder, L’album Canini du Louvre et la collection d’antiques de Richelieu (Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1988), 29, 40, 51, 51n158, 73.

De Nicolò dell’Abate à Nicolas Poussin: aux sources du Classicisme, 1550–1650, exh. cat. (Meaux, France: Musée Bossuet, 1988), 192.

Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain: Zu den Bildern im Städel, exh. cat. (Frankfurt am Main: Städtische Galerie im Städelschen Kunstinstitut, 1988), 13, as Der Triumph der Bacchus.

Konrad Oberhuber, Poussin: The Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism, exh. cat. (New York: Hudson Hills, 1988), 14, 59, 150, 248–49, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Iain Pears, The Discovery of Painting: The Growth of the Interest in the Arts in England, 1680–1768 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 89–90, 103, 106, 247n139, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg and Jacques Thuillier, Laurent de La Hyre, 1606–1656: L’homme et l’œuvre, exh. cat. (Geneva: Éditions d’Art Albert Skira, 1988), 24.

John E. Schloder, “La Peinture au Château de Richelieu,” (Ph.D. diss., Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 1988), 1:62, 64–66, 173n65, 173n67, 173n68, 173n69; 2:313–16, 318, 363, 366–68, 488; 3:665, 724–25, 773, 779, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin ([Paris]: Arthème Fayard, 1988), 150, 156.

[Y(uri) Zolotov], [Poussin] (Moscow: [Iskusstvo], 1988), 120–21, 253, as Tpиумф Baкxa.

Hugh Brigstocke, “Cambridge, Mass, Fogg Art Museum: Pietro Testa,” The Burlington Magazine 131, no. 1031 (February 1989): 176, 178, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Atha Lecture,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art), no. 11 (November 1989): (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Malcolm Bull, “A Dance to the Music of Space,” Art History 12, no. 4 (December 1989): 517.

Hilliard T. Goldfarb, From Fontainebleau to the Louvre: French Drawing from the Seventeenth Century, exh. cat. (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1989), 42.

Roger Ward and Mark S. Weil, Master Drawings from the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, exh. cat. (Saint Louis: Washington University, 1989), 7, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Ann Sutherland Harris, “Konrad Oberhuber, ‘Poussin. The Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism’,” The Art Bulletin 72, no. 1 (March 1990): 145.

David Carrier, “Blindness and the Representation of Desire in Poussin’s Paintings,” Res 19/20 (1990–1991): 38n49, 38n51, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Robert D. Meadows-Rogers, “Procession and Return: Bacchus, Poussin, and the Conquest of Ancient Territory,” Athanor 9 (1990): 25–28, 28n2, 28n3, 28n4, 28n5, 29n14, 29n15, 29n16, 29n17, 29n18, 30n23, 30n26, 30n30, 30n31, 31, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Oskar Bätschmann, Nicolas Poussin: Dialectics of Painting, trans. Marko Daniel (London: Reaktion Books, 1990), 10, 135n14, 142n4, 148.

François Bluche, ed., Dictionnaire du Grand Siècle ([Paris]: Arthème Fayard, 1990), 1241.

Hugh Brigstocke, A Loan Exhibition of Drawings by Nicolas Poussin from British Collections, exh. cat. (London: Sotheby’s, 1990), unpaginated, as Triumph of Bacchus.

L. Brylenko, ed., Nicolas Poussin: Paintings and Drawings in Soviet Museums, trans. Thomas Crane and Margarita Latsinova (Leningrad: Aurora, 1990), 16, 126, 212, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Richard Verdi, Cézanne and Poussin: The Classical Vision of Landscape, exh. cat. (Edinburgh: Trustees of the National Galleries of Scotland, 1990), 14.

Hugh Brigstocke, “The Passionate Intensity of a Classicist,” The Spectator 266, no. 8502 (June 22, 1991): 40.

Colin B. Bailey, The Loves of the Gods: Mythological Painting from Watteau to David, exh. cat. (New York: Rizzoli, 1992), 146.

Joseph Bergin and Laurence Brockliss, eds., Richelieu and His Age (Oxford: Clarendon, 1992), 222.

Manfred Koch-Hillebrecht, Museen in den USA: Gemälde (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1992), 243, as Triumph des Bacchus.

Humphrey Wine and Olaf Koester, Fransk Guldalder: Poussin and Claude and French Painting of the Seventeenth Century, exh. cat. (Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst, 1992), 166–68, 170–71, 235, (repro.), as Bacchus’ triumf / Triumph of Bacchus.

Christopher Wright, The World’s Master Paintings: From the Early Renaissance to the Present Day (London: Routledge, 1992), 1:248; 2:122, 558, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Alice Thorson, “The Nelson celebrates its 60th; Museum built its reputation, collection virtually ‘from scratch’,” Kansas City Star (July 18, 1993), http://iw.newsbank.com.proxy.mcpl.lib.mo.us/resources/doc/nb/news/0EAF3F63F5A9B706?p=WORLDNEWS

Alice Thorson, “Computers help lead tours at the Nelson,” Kanas City Star (November 8, 1993), http://iw.newsbank.com.proxy.mcpl.lib.mo.us/resources/doc/nb/news/0EAF3FC373E13353?p=WORLDNEWS

David Carrier, Poussin’s Paintings: A Study in Art-Historical Methodology (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993), 86n5, 121n47, 151, 179, 208, 232–33, 235, 264, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Michael Churchman and Scott Erbes, High Ideals and Aspirations: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1933–1993 (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1993), 26, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Century of Splendour: Seventeenth-century French Painting in French Public Collections, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1993), 180, 302.

Musée du Louvre, Dessins français du XVIIe siècle dans les collections publiques françaises, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1993), 92, 94.

Konrad Oberhuber, ed., Beschreibender Katalog der Handzeichnungen in der graphischen Sammlung Albertina, vol. 8, Die Zeichnungen der Französischen Schule von Clouet bis Le Brun (Vienna: Albertina, 1993), 356, 744.

Roger Ward and Patricia J. Fidler, eds., The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: A Handbook of the Collections, 1st ed. (New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1993), 35, 129, 164, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Kristie C. Wolferman, The Nelson Atkins Museum of Art: Culture Comes to Kansas City (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1993), 134, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Jacques Thuillier, “Poussin et le laboratoire,” Techne, no. 1 (1994): 18–19, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Gilles Chomer, Autour de Poussin, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994), 32, 94.

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours, Chefs-d’œuvre du Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours, exh. cat. (Tokyo: Commission des musées japonais, 1994), 34, 211, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Todd Philip Olson, Nicolas Poussin, His French Clientele and the Social Construction of Style (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1994), 1:22–24, 68n4, 69n13, 69n17; 2:356, 524, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg and Véronique Damian, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Éditions d’art Somogy, 1994), 58, 136.

Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994), 133, 225–26, 228–30, (repro.), as Le triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665: Catalogue raisonné des dessins (Milan: Leonardo, 1994), 1:xvii, 110, 148, 150, 152, 156, 160, 162, 164, 178, 352, 360, (repro.); 2:920, 1066, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin: La collection du musée Bonnat à Bayonne, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994), 18, 28–29, 34, as Le triomphe de Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, Nicolas Poussin: La collection du musée Condé à Chantilly, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994), 31.

Antoine Schnapper, Curieux du Grand Siècle: Collections et Collectionneurs dans la France du XVIIe Siècle, vol. 2, Œuvres d’Art (1994; repr., Paris: Flammarion, 2005), 142–43, 143n142, 230–31, 235, 488, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Paris: Flammarion, 1994), 44, 119, 155, 164, 167, 173, 176, 179, 186–87, 202, 211n34, 212n97, 213n39, 216n112, 254, 279, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Malcolm Bull, “Poussin’s Bacchanals for Cardinal Richelieu,” The Burlington Magazine 137, no. 1102 (January 1995): 5–6, 9–10, 10n28, 11, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Michael Kitson, “The Poussin Exhibitions in France,” The Burlington Magazine 137, no. 1102 (January 1995): 32.

Hugh Brigstocke, “A Profession of Things Mute: Poussin’s Homage to Poetry and Music,” The Times Literary Supplement, no. 4792 (February 3, 1995): 17.

Humphrey Wine, “‘Poussin Problems’ at the National Gallery,” Apollo 141, no. 397 (March 1995): 26, 28n14, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Henry Keazor, “Nicolas Poussin,” Kunstchronik 48, no. 5 (August 1995): 339–40, 356, as Triumph des Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg and Louis-Antoine Prat, “Poussin. Works on Paper. Drawings from the Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II,” The Burlington Magazine 137, no. 1111 (October 1995): 691.

Hugh Brigstocke, “The Mystery of Poussin’s Drawings: New Clues, New Solutions, and the Inevitable Red Herring,” Apollo 142, no. 405 (November 1995): 61.

Martin Clayton, Poussin: Works on Paper: Drawings from the Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, exh. cat. (London: Merrell Holberton, 1995), 102–04, 109, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Alain Mérot, French Painting in the Seventeenth Century, trans. Caroline Beamish (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995), 119.

Pierre Rosenberg and Véronique Damian, Nicolas Poussin: Masterpieces, 1594–1665, trans. Sophie Henley-Price (London: Cassell, 1995), 58, 136.

Richard Verdi, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665, exh. cat. (London: Zwemmer, 1995), 202, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Olivier Bonfait et al., eds., Poussin et Rome: Actes du colloque de l’Académie de France à Rome, 16–18 novembre 1994 (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1996), 258.

André Chastel, French Art, vol. 3*, The Ancien Régime, 1620–1775*, trans. Deke Dusinberre (Paris: Flammarion, 1996), 146.

Elizabeth Cropper and Charles Dempsey, Nicolas Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996), 345n30, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Maurizio Fagiolo dell’Arco, Jean Lemaire: pittore “antiquario” (Rome: Ugo Bozzi, 1996), 22, 35, 129, 150, 251.

Susan Grace Galassi, Picasso’s Variations on the Masters: Confrontations with the Past (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996), 92, 212n17, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Italies: Peintures des musées de la région Centre, exh. cat. (Orléans: Association des musées de la région Centre, 1996), 183.

Jean Lepage and Anne Bousquet, Vins, vignes, vignerons dans la peinture française, exh. cat. (Narbonne: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, 1996), 38, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

André Mérot, ed., Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665): Actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre par le Service culturel du 19 au 21 octobre 1994 (Paris: Musée du Louvre, 1996), 1:29, 206, 209–10, 352, 419, 426n31; 2:697–98, 706n2, 706n4, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Jane Turner, ed., The Dictionary of Art (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, 1996), 11:535; 25:389–90, 394, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Roger Ward, Dürer to Matisse: Master Drawings from The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, exh. cat. (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1996), 11, 95–96, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Malcolm Bull, “Poussin and the Antique,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 129, no. 1538 (March 1997): 119, 126, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Susan A. Weir, “Poussin’s Marine Painting in Philadelphia Reconsidered,” Source: Notes in the History of Art 17, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 34–35, 36n14, 37n20.

Marc Fumaroli, Le Poète et le Roi: Jean de La Fontaine en son Siècle (Paris: Éditions de Fallois, 1997), 257.

Cordélia Hattori, “Problèmes Autour de Trois Dessins de Poussin (1594–1665): ‘Bacchanale, Sacrements et Grande Galerie du Louvre,’” Revue du Louvre 48, no. 2 (April 1998): 47, 55n4.

“Summer Shows Highlight Drawings, Furniture,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (Summer 1998): 2, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Bill Blankenship, “Drawings from Within,” Topeka Capital-Journal (July 12, 1998): as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Malcolm Bull, “Poussin and Nonnos,” The Burlington Magazine 140, no. 1148 (November 1998): 725n8, 735n71, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Henry Keazor, Poussins Parerga: Quellen, Entwicklung und Bedeutung der Kleinkompositionen in den Gemälden Nicolas Poussins (Regensburg, Germany: Verlag Schnell and Steiner, 1998), 63n20, 72, 72n57, 82, 82n99, 82n100, 83, 83n100, 83n102, 84, 84n111, 85, 85n112, 85n115, 85n117, 86, 86n117, 86n118, 86n119, 87, 87n121, 88, 88n126, 156, 257, 259, 362, (repro.), as Der Triumph des Bacchus.

Delphine Robin, Étude iconographique des Bacchanales Richelieu de Nicolas Poussin (Ph.D. diss., Université Paris IV Sorbonne, 1998), 2, 2n3, 3–5, 5n11, 6, 6n13, 6n15, 7, 25, 27–28, 32n83, 33–34, 34n94, 35, 37, 37n113, 38–42, 51–54, 59, 62, 66–67, 67n295, 71–78, 84, 90–91, 104–05, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Delphine Robin, Étude iconographique des Bacchanales Richelieu de Nicolas Poussin (annexes) (Ph.D. diss., Université Paris IV Sorbonne, 1998), 2–4, 6–8, 12–13, 48, (repro.).

“Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 1998–1999,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 57, no. 2 (Fall 1999): 32, as Triumph of Bacchus.

“Nicolas Poussin’s ‘Holy Family on the Steps,’ 14 November 1999–23 January 2000,” exh. cat., special issue, Cleveland Studies in the History of Art 4 (1999): 72, 76, 92n4, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Martine Vasselin, “Des Fastes de Bacchus aux Beuveries Flamandes: l’Iconographie du Vin de la Fin du XVe Siècle à la Fin du XVIIe Siècle,” Nouvelle Revue du Seizième Siècle 17, no. 2 (1999): 228–29, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Isabelle Pantin, Les Fréart de Chantelou: Une famille d’amateurs au XVIIe siècle entre Le Mans, Paris et Rome (Le Mans, France: Création et Recherche, 1999), 142, 144, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Olivier Bonfait and Jean-Claude Boyer, Intorno a Poussin: Ideale classico e epopea barocca tra Parigi e Roma, exh. cat. (Rome: De Luca, 2000), 70, 144.

Evelina Borea and Carlo Gasparri, L’Idea del Bello: Viaggio per Roma nel Seicento con Giovan Pietro Bellori, exh. cat., vol. 2 (Rome: De Luca, 2000), 420.

Anthony Levi, Cardinal Richelieu and the Making of France (New York: Carroll and Graf, 2000), 143.

Philippe Malgouyres, Peintures françaises du XVIIe siècle: La collection du musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen (Paris: Somogy Éditions d’art, 2000), 161, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Jonathan W. Unglaub, Poussin, Tasso, and the Poetics of Painting with an Excursus, Ancient Painting and Baroque Elocution (PhD diss., Columbia University, 2000), 228n24, 258n80, as Triumph of Bacchus.

[Paul Fréart de] Chantelou, Journal de Voyage du Cavalier Bernin en France, ed. Milovan Stanić (Paris: Macula, 2001), 88, 312n10, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Figures de la Passion, exh. cat. (Paris: Musée de la musique, 2001), 198, 206, 217n25, 224, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Nicholas H. J. Hall and J. Richard Knight, MMI (London: Hall and Knight, 2001), 116.

Shirley Phillips, “Bellori’s ‘Ekphraseis’ of Poussin’s Paintings” (PhD diss., University of Essex, 2001), 27, 109n91, 337, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Humphrey Wine, The Seventeenth Century French Paintings (London: National Gallery, 2001), xiii, 350, 356, 358–61, 362n2, 364n82, 364n89, 365n90, 376, 378–80, 382n7, 383n55, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Richard T. Neer, “Poussin, Titian, and Tradition: ‘The Birth of Bacchus’ and the Genealogy of Images,” Word and Image 18, no. 3 (July–September 2002): 271, 280n32.

Diane Trudel, “À la gloire de Richelieu: Un art de propagande,” Vie des Arts 47, no. 188 (Autumn 2002): 82.

Hilliard T. Goldfarb, “Richelieu et l’art de son temps: Raison d’État et goût personnel,” L’Estampille/L’Objet d’Art, no. 373 (October 2002): 28, 34, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Deborah Weisgall, “A Hard Man Who Saw Art as Power and Vice Versa,” The New York Times 152, no. 52,277 (October 20, 2002): a35, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Olivier Bonfait, ed., L’idéal classique: Les échanges artistiques entre Rome et Paris au temps de Bellori (1640–1700) (Rome: Académie de France à Rome, 2002), 65n42.

Enyclopædia Universalis, vol. 18 (Paris: Encyclopædia Universalis, 2002), 726, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Hilliard T. Goldfarb, ed., Richelieu: Art and Power, exh. cat. (Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 2002), 2, 244–45, 292–95, 298, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Musée des Beaux-arts d’Orléans, Les Maîtres retrouvés: peintures françaises du XVIIe siècle du musée des Beaux-Arts d’Orléans, exh. cat. (Paris: Somogy éditions d’art, 2002), 104, 134, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Todd P. Olson, Poussin and France: Painting, Humanism, and the Politics of Art (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), 50–51, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Janie C. Lee and Melvin P. Lader, Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective of Drawings, exh. cat. (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 2003), 48, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Guillaume Peureux, ed., “Le Musée Imaginaire de Jean de La Fontaine,” Le Fablier: Revue des Amis de Jean de La Fontaine, no. 15 (2004): 23.

Stephen Campbell, The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the ‘Studiolo’ of Isabella d’Este (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), 269, 374n47, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Erika Langmuir, The National Gallery: Companion Guide, rev. ed. (London: National Gallery, 2004), 232.

“Art,” Kansas City Star (November 16, 2005), http://iw.newsbank.com.proxy.mcpl.lib.mo.us/resources/doc/nb/news/10DF22DFB02A8548?p=WORLDNEWS

The Arts of France from François Ier to Napoléon Ier: A Centennial Celebration of Wildenstein’s Presence in New York, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein, 2005), 403.

Everett Fahy, ed., The Wrightsman Pictures (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005), 136.

Noriko Mochizuki, “‘Le Triomphe de Bacchus’ et ‘Le Triomphe de Pan’ de Nicolas Poussin: leur signification dans le contexte de la décoration du cabinet du Roi au château de Richelieu,” Bijutsushi 55, no. 2 (March 2006): 299, 302–03, 308, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Gérard Auguier, “Le duc de Richelieu, Charles de La Fosse et Pierre Dulin: Proposition pour une nouvelle attribution,” Les Cahiers d’Histoire de l’Art, no. 4 (2006): 46.

Delphine Bastet, “Étude iconographique des ‘Bacchanales Richelieu’ de Nicolas Poussin,” Studiolo 4 (2006): 167–70, 172–80, 182, 183n1, 183n2, 183n26, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

[Emmanuel] Bénézit, Dictionary of Artists, rev. ed., vol. 11 (Paris: Éditions Gründ, 2006), 303, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, Jacques Stella (1596–1657), exh. cat. (Paris: Somogy éditions d’art, 2006), 135.

Poussin: Bacchanal: Enchantment and Pleasures, Evoking a Bygone Golden Age, exh. cat. (Budapest: Szépművészeti Múzeum, 2006), 18, 81, as Bacchus diadalmenete.

Jonathan Unglaub, Poussin and the Poetics of Painting: Pictorial Narrative and the Legacy of Tasso (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 156, 249n78.

Robert W. Berger, “Poussin’s Source(s) for his Marine Painting in Philadelphia: A ‘Triumph of Venus’ after Apuleius,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 70, no. 3 (2007): 434, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Daniela del Pesco, Bernini in Francia: Paul de Chantelou e il ‘Journal de voyage du cavalier Bernin en France’ (Naples: Electa, 2007), 146, 254, 540, as Trionfo di Bacco.

Marc Fumaroli, Peinture et Pouvoirs: De Rome à Paris aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Dijon: Éditions Faton, 2007), 204, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Henry Keazor, Nicolas Poussin, 1594–1665 (Hong Kong: Taschen, 2007), 34–35, 52–54, 94, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Christopher Wright, Poussin: Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné, rev. ed. (London: Chaucer Press, 2007), no. 81, pp. 44, 53, 96–98, 111, 113, 116–21, 124–25, 139, 144, 158, 169, 175, 199, 271, 287, 291, 296, 299, 305, 311, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Brendan Cole, “The Mask of Dionysus? Notes towards a Re-Examination of Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Pan’,” Eton Collections Review, no. 3 (December 2008): 66, 95, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Giovanni Agosti and Dominique Thiébaut, eds., Mantegna, 1431–1506, exh. cat. (Paris: Hazan, 2008), 450, 453n46, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Stijn Alsteens and Hans Buijs, Paysages de France: dessinés par Lambert Doomer et les artistes hollandais et flamands des XVIe et XVIIe siècles (Paris: Fondation Custodia, 2008), 360–61, 391.

Deborah Emont Scott, ed., The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: A Handbook of the Collection, 7th ed. (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2008), 34, 74, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Jean-Claude Boyer, Barbara Gaehtgens, and Bénédicte Gady, eds., Richelieu, patron des arts (Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2009), 33, 315, 326, 378.

Philip Conisbee, French Paintings of the Fifteenth through the Eighteenth Century (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2009), 132, 373, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Curie, ed., Poussin: Restauração: ‘Hymeneus travestido assistindo a uma dança em honra a Príapo’ (São Paulo: Instituto totem cultural, 2009), 55, 58–60.

Marie-Pierre Terrien and Philippe Dien, Le Château de Richelieu: XVIIe–XVIIIe Siècles (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2009), 95n86.

Humphrey Wine, “Washington’s French Paintings from the 15th to the 18th Centuries,” The Art Newspaper, no. 215 (July–August 2010): 40.

Stefano Pierguidi, “Il ciclo dei costumi de’ Romani antichi del Buen Retiro di Madrid,” Storia dell’arte, nos. 125–26 (2010): 83.

Marc Bayard, ed., Rome-Paris, 1640: Transferts culturels et renaissance d’un centre artistique (Rome: Académie de France à Rome, 2010), 332–35, 337–39, 342–43, 375, 394n7, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Jan De Maere and Nicolas Sainte Fare Garnot, eds., Du baroque au classicisme: Rubens, Poussin et les peintres du XVIIe siècle, exh. cat. (Brussels: Fonds Mercator, 2010), 154.

Peter Fuhring et al., ed., L’Estampe au Grand Siècle: Études offertes à Maxime Préaud (Paris: École nationale de chartes, 2010), 346, 346n16.

Alexandre Crochet, “Les riches heures de Richelieu collectionneur,” Beaux Arts, no. 321 (March 2011): 136.

Nicolas Smirnoff, “The Artistic Eye of the Red Eminence: Richelieu’s Collection Reunited,” The Art Newspaper, no. 222 (March 2011): 82.

William C. Agee et al., American Vanguards: Graham, Davis, Gorky, de Kooning, and Their Circle, 1927–1942, exh. cat. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011), 136, 141, 191, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Marc Bayard and Elena Fumagalli, eds., Poussin et la construction de l’antique (Rome: Académie de France à Rome, 2011), 49, 368, 379, 549, 574, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Nicholas Cullinan, Twombly and Poussin: Arcadian Painters, exh. cat. (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2011), 12, 59, 61, 69, 84n34, 134, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Alain Mérot, Poussin, 3rd ed. (Paris: Éditions Hazan, 2011), 75, 87–88, 92, 95, 118, 133, 168, 188, 275–76, 307, 319, (repro.), as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Musée des Beaux-Arts d’Orléans, Richelieu à Richelieu: Architecture et Décors d’un Château Disparu, exh. cat. (Milan: Silvana, 2011), 120, 128–35, 314–15, 320–22, 326, 328, 442, 460, (repro.), as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Elizabeth A. Pergam, The Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition of 1857: Entrepreneurs, Connoisseurs and the Public (Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2011), 142, 317, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Brendan Cole, “The Mask of Dionysus: A Reinterpretation of Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Pan,’” Artibus et Historiae 33, no. 65 (2012): 233, 236–37, 242, 250, 255, 265, 267, 274n115, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

David Blayney Brown, ‘Studies in the Louvre sketchbook 1802’, sketchbook, October 2009, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, December 2012, http://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/studies-in-the-louvre-sketchbook-r1129682, accessed March 4, 2013.

Robert G. Erdmann, C. Richard Johnson, Mary Schafer, John Twilley, Nicole Myers, and Travis Sawyer, “Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis,” AIC Paintings Specialty Group: Postprints 26; Papers Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis (Washington, DC: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2013): 155–72, as Triumph of Bacchus.

John Twilley, Nicole Myers, and Mary Schafer, “Poussin’s Materials and Techniques for ‘The Triumph of Bacchus’ at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art,” Kermes 27, nos. 94–95 (April–September 2014): 71–83, 83n1, 83n3, 83n6, 83n8, 83n22, 83n30, 83n40, (repro.), as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Jacques Thuillier, La peinture françoise au XVIIe siècle (Dijon: Éditions Faton, 2014), 272, 276.

Jacques Thuillier, Une vie pour l’histoire de l’art (Dijon: Éditions Faton, 2014), 264.

Laurens van der Maaten and Robert Erdmann, “Automatic Thread-Level Canvas Analysis,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 32, no. 4 (July 2015): 39, 41–45, 45n9, as Triumph of Bacchus.

Pierre Rosenberg, Nicolas Poussin: Les Tableaux du Louvre, Catalogue Raisonné (Paris: Louvre éditions, 2015), 13, 20, 32, 60, 361, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin (Dijon: Éditions Faton, 2015), 1:72–73, 161, 207, 268n48, 292, 292n13, 331, 333, 347–48, (repro.); 2:387, 405–06, 406n34, 416, 420, 420n97, 440, 440n39, 466, 466n112, 535–36, 538, 626, 642, 674, 682, as Triomphe de Bacchus.

Helen Glanville, “Aspect and Prospect—Poussin’s Trumph of Silenus,” Artibus et Historiae (December 2016), 241–54.

Pierre Rosenberg and Nicole Garnier-Pelle, Nicolas Poussin: Les Carnets de Chantilly (Dijon: Éditions Faton, 2017), 13, 14n8, 89, as Le Triomphe de Bacchus.

“Nicolas Poussin’s ‘The Triumph of Pan’ will be travelling the UK in 2019,” Artdaily.org (December 19, 2018): [http://artdaily.com/news/110008/Nicolas-Poussin-s–The-Triumph-of-Pan–will-be-travelling-the-UK-in-2019#.XBpl1-SWyid]{.ul}, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Troy Thomas, Poussin’s Women: Sex and Gender in the Artist’s Works (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2020), 84, 128–31, 135–39, 142, 144–45, 147–50, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, “Poussin’s ‘Triumph of Silenus’ rediscovered,” Burlington Magazine 163, no. 1418 (May 2021): 408–15, (repro.), as Triumph of Bacchus.

“The National Gallery’s ‘The Triumph of Silenus’ reattributed to Poussin,” ArtDaily.org (May 1, 2021): https://artdaily.cc/news/135260/The-National-Gallery-s--The-Triumph-of-Silenus--reattributed-to-Poussin#.YJAtgqFOmUk, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Emily A. Beeny and Francesca Whitlum-Cooper, Poussin and the Dance, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Getty, 2021).

Andrew Pulver, “London’s National Gallery makes a song and dance about Nicolas Poussin,” Art Newspaper (October 5, 2021): https://www.theartnewspaper.com/2021/10/05/making-a-song-and-dance-of-poussin, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

“First ever exhibition to focus on Poussin’s pictures of dancers and revellers opens at the National Gallery,” ArtDaily.org (October 11, 2021): https://artdaily.cc/news/140119/First-ever-exhibition-to-focus-on-Poussin-s-pictures-of-dancers-and-revellers-opens-at-the-National-Gallery#.YWRe131OmUk, as The Triumph of Bacchus.

Todd Olson, Survivals: The Migration and Transmission of Graphic Media in Early Modern Europe and the New World (forthcoming).