A scene of a boulevard lined with buildings and croweded with figures. A line of trees splits the street in two
Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873–1874, oil on canvas, 31 5/8 x 23 3/4 in. (80.3 x 60.3 cm), Purchase: the Kenneth A. and Helen F. Spencer Foundation Acquisition Fund, F72-35
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Fig. 1. Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873, oil on canvas, 24 x 31 1/2 in. (61 x 80 cm), The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow
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Fig. 2. Félix Nadar, Aerial View of the Arc de Triomphe, 1868, wet collodion print, in Walter Benjamin, “Paris: Capital of the 19th Century,” Arcades Project, Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library
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Possibly Hippolyte Jouvin, Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, early/mid-1860s, double frame albumen silver print from a stereoscopic photograph, 21 1/2 x 10 15/16 in. (54.6 x 27.7 cm). Photo: Artokoloro/Alamy Stock Photo
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Fig. 4. Claude Monet, Garden of the Princess, Louvre, ca. 1867, oil on canvas, 36 1/8 x 24 3/8 in. (91.8 x 61.9 cm), Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, R. T. Miller Jr. Fund, 1948.296
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Fig. 5. Honoré Daumier, Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art, May 25, 1862, lithograph, image: 10 1/2 x 8 11/16 in. (26.7 x 22.1 cm); plate: 17 1/2 x 12 5/16 in. (44.5 x 31.3 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1926
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Fig. 6. Detail of bottom edge original turnover creases and filled tack holes, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Fig. 7. Detail illustrating the original left edge of the picture plane, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Fig. 8. Detail of top left corner simultaneous contrast in the sky, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Fig. 9. Detail of a reserve left for a tree in the sky, and a scumble of paint over the tree and chimneys, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Fig. 10. Detail of wet-over-wet technique between the figures and foreground in the lower right of the central group, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874), indicated with a purple arrow. The green outline indicates reserve area and exposed ground around figures.
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Fig. 11. Detail of figures painted over the foreground without reserves, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Fig. 12. Detail of carriages, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Fig. 13. Detail in raking light, illustrating canvas weave interference, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
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Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874

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doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626

ArtistClaude Monet, French, 1840–1926
TitleBoulevard des Capucines
Object Date1873–1874
Alternate and Variant TitlesLes Grands Boulevards
MediumOil on canvas
Dimensions (Unframed)31 5/8 x 23 3/4 in. (80.4 x 60.3 cm)
SignatureSigned lower right: Claude Monet
Credit LineThe Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Purchase: The Kenneth A. and Helen F. Spencer Foundation Acquisition Fund, F72-35
Catalogue Entry
Citation

Chicago:

Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” catalogue entry in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.5407

MLA:

Marcereau DeGalan, Aimee. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” catalogue entry. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.5407

High above his native city of Paris in late 1873/early 1874, Claude Monet perched with his paints, palette, brushes, and canvases on the upper-level balconies of 35 boulevard des Capucines. The building was emblazoned with ten-foot-high red neon letters spelling the nickname of its owner, famed photographer Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (1820–1889), better known as Nadar. Looking northeast, toward the Place de l’Opéra, Monet painted two canvases of nearly identical proportions, but in different formats—a vertical composition, now at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, and a horizontal canvas, now in the Pushkin Museum collection (Fig. 1), the latter of which Monet exhibited in the inaugural Impressionist exhibition in 1874 in Nadar’s former studio.1While many of the contemporary reviews of the 1874 exhibition could conceivably apply to both pictures, hence the long debate over which canvas was exhibited, an English review by Frederick Wedmore noted that “Claude Monet sends the ‘Boulevard des Capucines’ a rough oil sketch some four feet long.” This measurement must refer to a framed dimension and could only relate to the width of the horizontal Pushkin canvas, as the framed height of the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard is 43 3/8 in. See Frederick Wedmore, “Pictures in Paris: The Exhibition of ‘Les Impressionistes’,” The Examiner (June 13, 1874): 633–34, as cited in Ed Lilley, “A Rediscovered English Review of the 1874 Impressionist Exhibition,” Burlington Magazine 154, no. 1317 (2012): 845.

Fig. 1. Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873, oil on canvas, 24 x 31 1/2 in. (61 x 80 cm), The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow
Fig. 1. Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873, oil on canvas, 24 x 31 1/2 in. (61 x 80 cm), The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow
Both canvases take their titles from the street they represent. Considered one of Paris’s four “Grand Boulevards,” the Boulevard des Capucines runs through the north of Paris, from the Rue des Capucines toward the Place de l’Opéra. Designed in the late 1600s and named after a convent that formerly occupied a place on the street, the boulevard was redesigned by Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann as part of Napoleon III’s campaign to modernize the city and its thoroughfares in the mid-nineteenth century.2See Patrice de Moncan, Les grandes boulevards de Paris: De la Bastille à la Madeleine (Paris: Les Éditions de Mécène, 1997), 348–63, cited in Simon Kelly and April M. Watson, Impressionist France: Visons of Nation from Le Gray to Monet, exh. cat. (St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Art Museum, 2013), 104. See also James H. Rubin, Impressionism and the Modern Landscape: Productivity, Technology, and Urbanization from Manet to Van Gogh (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 5–6, 10, 30–32, 36, 46–47, 160, 203n36, 235. The paintings present a snapshot of one of the liveliest commercial districts of the newly redesigned city. With the sketch-like subject matter, fragmentation of the figure, elevated vantage point, tilted perspective, sharp diagonals, and topographical accuracy, Monet’s approach bears much in common with the formal characteristics of nineteenth-century aerial and stereographic photographystereographic photography: Twin images that, when viewed together through a special device, produce an illusion of three-dimensionality., a medium that fostered a new way of seeing, and with one of its most savvy practitioners, Félix Nadar.

In the Nelson-Atkins composition, Monet captures the hustle-bustle of the boulevard on a cool, wintry day. Some women with parasols stroll, and possibly shop, alongside men in top hats and families with children, including a girl in a pink-and-white dress who ambles away from a balloon vendor holding a bunch of pink balloons. Others may be guests of the Grand Hôtel, seen at the center left amid the mansard-style hip roofs of the stylish new multistory apartment buildings. A single burgundy-and-yellow Morris advertising column stands sentinel near the row of snow-covered hansom cabs that cuts a sharp diagonal into the picture plane. Those with occupants, including an omnibus, whiz down the boulevard in a blur. Appearing at center right, hovering over the street from the balcony next to Nadar’s studio, two onlookers in top hats survey the frenetic activity below. Above them is the Place de l’Opéra, home to architect Charles Garnier’s new opera house. Monet’s figures are loose, mere suggestions, some hastily laid down on the canvas in dry brushy strokes over areas of exposed groundground layer: An opaque preparatory layer applied to the support, either commercially or by the artist, to prevent absorption of the paint into the canvas or panel. See also priming layer.. While he left reservesreserve: An area of the composition left unpainted with the intention of inserting a feature at a later stage in the painting process. for the foreground figures and the tops of the trees, in other areas there is evidence he painted on top of a wet ground, adding and developing as he went in order to realize his vision.3See the accompanying technical essay by Diana M. Jaskierny. This suggests he may have viewed the work as a sketch, an idea supported by an entry in Monet’s account books in the spring of 1875 noting a sale of “3 esquisses” (three sketches) to the painter and photographer Charles Vaillant de Meixmoron de Dombasle (1839–1912) for 300 francs.4As per a notation in the curatorial files, Charles de Meixmoron de Dombasle bought ten works from Monet in 1873. He acquired an additional three sketches in 1875. Although these are not individually enumerated, it is likely that the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard des Capucines was in the 1875 transaction. I am grateful to Simon Kelly, curator of modern and contemporary art, St. Louis Art Museum, for sharing information and his thoughts about the 1875 sale. See Monet’s entry under May 4, 1875, “M. de Dombasle / [illegible] / 3 esquisses 300 [francs]” (Monet’s livre de comptes, ventes janvier–juillet 1875, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris. A photocopy of this page is in the curatorial object file, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art).

The Pushkin Boulevard presents the same view, but in contrast to the evenly diffuse blue-violet wintry haze in the Nelson-Atkins composition, it is bathed in a golden glow on the left half of the composition, while the right half falls into deep shadow. The two canvases are essentially effetseffets: French for “effects.” An artist’s emphasis on the atmospheric effects of time and weather on the subject matter., painted in different light, probably at different times of day. The horizontal format of the Pushkin picture clips the tops of the buildings along the left edge but allows for a wider expanse of crowd; the figures, although still loosely painted, are rendered with more clarity than those of the Nelson-Atkins composition, in paticular, the two men in top-hats who survey the street below, suggesting the Pushkin picture came second.5In the spring of 1874, following the first Impressionist exhibition, Jean-Baptiste Faure bought four works by Monet for 4,000 francs, including the Pushkin Boulevard des Capucines. The pricing structure of 1,000 francs per picture, suggests Monet considered this a finished work. For the notation of Monet’s account books, see Anne Distel, Impressionism: The First Collectors, trans. Barbara Perround-Benson (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990), 84. What remains murky, however, are the precise dating of these two canvases and further evidence to support the order of their execution.

Most scholars, including Daniel Wildenstein, accept the 1873 inscription on the Pushkin picture, suggesting Monet painted it in the fall of 1873, and that the Nelson-Atkins canvas followed closely thereafter in the winter of 1873/1874 to account for the snow.6Daniel Wildenstein, Monet: Catalogue Raisonné; Werkverzeichnis, trans. Josephine Bacon (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1996), 2:124–25. The acceptance of the 1873 date is predicated not only on the inscription of the Pushkin picture but also early reviews of the Pushkin picture written during Monet’s lifetime by his friend, Gustave Geffroy. See Gustave Geffroy, “Chronique—Claude Monet,” La Justice (March 15, 1883): 2, and Gustave Geffroy, Claude Monet: Sa vie, son œuvre (Paris: G. Crès, 1922), 263. There was no snow in Paris in the fall of 1873, but there were several days of thick hoarfrost and frost, in November and December 1873, which could account for the white covering on the hansom cabs and ground in the Nelson-Atkins picture. It did not snow until February 9, 1874. See the Observatoire de la marine et du bureau des longitudes, Paris et Observatoire de Montsouris, Bulletin mensuel de l’Observatoire Physique Central de Monsouris (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1873/1874), https://bibnum.obspm.fr/ark:/11287/2BfGK and https://bibnum.obspm.fr/ark:/11287/VPTcP. However, the execution of the canvases as noted above, in tandem with Monet selling the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard des Capucines to Dombasle as a sketch, suggests a reversal of order. Monet was in Paris often that fall/early winter of 1873/1874 as part of developing conversations around organizing the first Impressionist exhibition. Presumably discussions were underway about using Nadar’s former studio as a venue, so it is likely Monet started both canvases that fall with the idea of presenting one of them from the very room in which he painted it. It was a calculated move. Recently, however, Joel Isaacson challenged the Pushkin date, arguing instead for an early 1874 completion for both the Pushkin and the Nelson-Atkins pictures, a period during which many other scholars believe Monet was in Amsterdam.7See Joel Isaacson, “Monet: Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival,” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide 20, no. 1 (Spring 2021): https://doi.org/10.29411/ncaw.2021.20.1.3. Daniel Wildenstein believes Monet traveled to Amsterdam in the spring of 1874. See Daniel Wildenstein, Monet, or The Triumph of Impressionism (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1996), 1:108–09. Isaacson reconnected the paintings to carnival, a month-long celebration that occurs annually between Epiphany (January 6) and Lent. Carnival brought grand processions down the boulevard des Capucines during the last three days of celebration known as the jours de gras, or “fat days,” which in 1874 fell on February 15–17,8Isaacson, “Monet: Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival.” Gustave Geffroy first made this connection to carnival in an 1883 review of the Pushkin picture at Durand-Ruel, a position he maintained along with the painting’s 1873 date in his 1922 biography, authored nearly twenty-five years into his friendship with Monet. See Geffroy, “Chronique—Claude Monet,” 2, and Geffroy, Claude Monet, 263, where he titled the Pushkin painting Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival. the precise period Isaacson places the Pushkin picture, when crowds and masked processions were at their peak. However, rather than starting the canvases from scratch in mid-February, a mere two months before the exhibition, in a move that feels haphazard rather than contemplated, it makes more sense that Monet at least roughed both canvases out in the late fall, starting first with the Nelson-Atkins picture. Having worked through some of the major compositional issues in the Nelson-Atkins painting, his approach in the Pushkin picture is more resolved. Notwithstanding the rain that fell all three days of the jours de gras in 1874, there is precedent for Monet choosing a moment to capitalize on the crowds as part of a marketing strategy for his pictures.9For the weather in February 1873, see the Observatoire de la marine et du bureau des longitudes, Paris et Observatoire de Montsouris, (1873), 2:75, https://bibnum.obspm.fr/ark:/11287/2BfGK. In his 1867 paintings realized from the balcony of the Louvre (Quai du Louvre and Garden of the Princess; see fig. 4), Monet capitalized on the crowds who were in town that summer for the International Exposition. He planned for this again in 1878, when he obtained permission to paint from two different balconies in an effort to capture the national holiday in celebration of France’s recovery from the war with Prussia. The paintings are The Rue Montorgeuil, 30th of June 1878 (1878; Musée d’Orsay, Paris) and The Rue Saint-Denis 30th of June 1878 (1878; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen). And what a stroke of marketing genius to show them from the very vantage point of his forthcoming exhibition venue!

Fig. 2. Félix Nadar, Aerial View of the Arc de Triomphe, 1868, wet collodion print, in Walter Benjamin, “Paris: Capital of the 19th Century,” Arcades Project, Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library
Fig. 2. Félix Nadar, Aerial View of the Arc de Triomphe, 1868, wet collodion print, in Walter Benjamin, “Paris: Capital of the 19th Century,” Arcades Project, Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library
Fig. 2. Félix Nadar, Aerial View of the Arc de Triomphe, 1868, wet collodion print, in Walter Benjamin, “Paris: Capital of the 19th Century,” Arcades Project, Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library
Possibly Hippolyte Jouvin, Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, early/mid-1860s, double frame albumen silver print from a stereoscopic photograph, 21 1/2 x 10 15/16 in. (54.6 x 27.7 cm). Photo: Artokoloro/Alamy Stock Photo
Possibly Hippolyte Jouvin, Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, early/mid-1860s, double frame albumen silver print from a stereoscopic photograph, 21 1/2 x 10 15/16 in. (54.6 x 27.7 cm). Photo: Artokoloro/Alamy Stock Photo
Possibly Hippolyte Jouvin, Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, early/mid-1860s, double frame albumen silver print from a stereoscopic photograph, 21 1/2 x 10 15/16 in. (54.6 x 27.7 cm). Photo: Artokoloro/Alamy Stock Photo
Monet’s high vantage point, looking down and across the street, places an emphasis on the fore and middle grounds of both pictures, with the result that the street appears to tilt toward the picture plane. This is more evident in the Nelson-Atkins canvas, with its vertical format. The resulting compressed space is made all the more apparent by an emphasis on flattening, rather than the modeling power of light.10For more on this effect, see Kermit S. Champa, Studies in Early Impressionism (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973), 13, cited in Charles F. Stuckey, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, exh. cat. (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 140. This same extreme compression of space can be seen in an aerial photograph taken by Nadar of the six new avenues designed by Haussman extending from the Arc de Triomphe in 1868 (Fig. 2).11Several of these formal characteristics, including the use of an elevated bird’s eye view, were also related to his familiarity with Japanese ukiyo-e prints by Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858) and Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849). However, the prints do not present the figures in a sketch-like manner as Monet did, nor as early contemporary photography did. Nadar was obsessed with flight, and he pioneered and patented many photographic apparatuses to try to capture it visually. He made aerial photos by using a tethered balloon, for instance, and Monet’s inclusion of balloons near the top-hatted spectators who view the boulevard from up above, as Nadar did during his many aerial adventures, thus takes on new meaning.12For more information about Nadar, see Maria Morris Hambourg, Françoise Heilbrun, and Paul Néagu, Nadar (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995). See also Sharon Larson, “Rethinking Historical Authenticity: Photography, Nadar and Haussmann’s Paris,” Equinoxes: A Graduate Journal of French and Francophone Studies, no. 5 (spring/summer 2005), https://www.brown.edu/Research/Equinoxes/journal/Issue%205/eqx5_larson.htm; and Helene Bocard, Nadar (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). With the advent of dual-lens stereoscopic cameras at mid-century, French photographers including Adolphe Braun (1811–1877) and Hippolyte Jouvin (1829–1909) captured the boulevards and flurry of activity of the city.13Paloma Alarcó, The Impressionists and Photography, exh. cat. (Madrid: Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2019), 159. Like a stereoscopic view of the boulevard des Capucines possibly taken by Jouvin in the mid-1860s, many stereographic images are vertically oriented (Fig. 3). As suggested by April M. Watson, “the strong diagonal recessionals [in vertical views] helped intensify a three-dimensional effect when the images were viewed through a stereoscope.”14Cited in Watson’s catalogue entry for Hippolyte Jouvin. See Kelly and Watson, Impressionist France, nos. 19–20, p. 110. In painting and in aerial photography, however, the effect is flattening. Monet repeats this strong diagonal in both versions of Boulevard des Capucines, although it is more evident in the vertical Nelson-Atkins composition and the steep row of trees that cut across its picture plane. The figures are fragmented in both Monet’s work and in early photography—due to the long exposure times—further alluding to the inspiration Monet derived from photography. It was not the first time Monet adopted a heightened vista in his paintings, nor the first time there was an affinity between his work (and that of other young Impressionists) and photography, which fostered a new way of looking at the world.15Monet first adopted an elevated vantage point in his painting Garden at Saint-Adresse, 1867, oil on canvas, 38 5/8 x 51 1/8 in. (98.1 x 129.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, as noted in Charles S. Moffett, Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974), 159.

Fig. 4. Claude Monet, Garden of the Princess, Louvre, ca. 1867, oil on canvas, 36 1/8 x 24 3/8 in. (91.8 x 61.9 cm), Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, R. T. Miller Jr. Fund, 1948.296
Fig. 4. Claude Monet, Garden of the Princess, Louvre, ca. 1867, oil on canvas, 36 1/8 x 24 3/8 in. (91.8 x 61.9 cm), Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, R. T. Miller Jr. Fund, 1948.296
Monet’s Boulevard pictures form the second group of nearly two dozen views of Paris the artist produced intermittently over the course of a decade, beginning in 1867. Many scholars agree that the impetus for these paintings was probably the International Exposition (Exposition universelle d’art et d’industrie) held in Paris that summer, which showcased the modern advancements of the city on a world stage. Monet went to the Louvre for inspiration, but instead of looking at the historic pictures inside the building, he painted views of the new modern city outside, from the Louvre’s eastern balcony—a popular vantage point for photographers, including Gustave Le Gray (1820–1884).16Richard Thompson, Monet and Architecture, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery, 2018), 92. Monet made three city views, including a vertical and horizontal composition of nearly identical dimensions that both look south: Quai du Louvre (ca. 1867; Kunstmuseum Den Haag) and Garden of the Princess (Fig. 4).17For an example of a work produced by Le Gray from this vantage point, see Gustave Le Gray, Panorama de Paris, vers le Pont Neuf, about 1859, albumen collodion print on glass, 15 3/4 x 20 1/8 in. (40 x 51 cm), Musée d’Orsay, Paris, 1985.129, cited in Thompson, Monet and Architecture, 92. George Shackelford has argued that “the two paintings may be based on a common photographic source” because of the shared contour of the skyline, centering on the dome of the Pantheon.18George T. M. Shackelford, “Painter of Modern Life: Monet and the City,” in Claude Monet: The Truth of Nature, exh. cat. Denver Art Museum (New York: Prestel, 2019), 52. Alternatively, Shackelford surmises, the artist may have copied one painting from the other with tracing or a type of cartoon.19Shackelford, “Painter of Modern Life,” 52. There are no known studies for the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard, or evidence of any underdrawings, and the grand buildings along the left edge share a profile with the Pushkin version, seemingly supporting the theory that Monet could have relied on a photograph in their development. While Monet dismissed the use of any photographic aid later in life, as did other Impressionists, Shackelford rightly asks why Monet would not have used this type of tool, given its resonances with his work.20Shackelford, “Painter of Modern Life,” 52–53. Moreover, as photography was becoming incredibly successful in garnering attention through exhibition and sales, with their presentation of a thriving modern city and its inhabitants, the approach to the medium would seem all the more appealing to Monet, who was hoping to do the same.

After nine years of struggling to gain acceptance into the SalonSalon, the: Exhibitions organized by the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture) and its successor the Academy of Fine Arts (Académie des Beaux Arts), which took place in Paris from 1667 onwards. as fine art rather than being relegated to exhibitions of industrial products, photography as a medium was officially accepted into the Salon in 1859, and it was both commercially and artistically successful.21For more on the history of photography and its relationship to Impressionism, see Alarcó, The Impressionists and Photography, 19–28. Many of the young Impressionists, including Monet, were in a similar position of wanting and needing acceptance into the Salon, both as a stamp of official approval and as a place to show their work. Yet by the early 1870s Monet was not having much success on either of these fronts; in fact, he was regressing.22In 1865, Monet submitted two works to the Salon and gained one acceptance. He continued to submit to the Salons of 1867, 1868, 1869, and 1870, with only one painting accepted, in 1868. As has been shown by Virginia Spate, Monet had some success selling a number of pictures to Paul Durand-Ruel and a few other collectors in 1872–73; however, these were generally more conservative paintings, not the type of subject matter or approach to figure and form as seen in Monet’s Boulevards paintings. See Virginia Spate, Claude Monet: The Color of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 1992), 89. By the mid-1870s, he was struggling to sell fully developed and finished paintings to dealers, so he adopted a different strategy by selling sketches, likely including the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard des Capucines.23As Simon Kelly has shown, it is possible that Monet was making a “thoughtful attempt to tap into an established market for landscape etudes and esquisses dating back several decades at least until the start of the century.” I am extremely grateful to Kelly, who shared his insight on this aspect of Monet’s marketing strategy, as discussed in his unpublished paper, “Monet and Commercial Strategy” (presented at the Musée d’Orsay, 2009). Similarly, Nadar deftly pivoted from one strategy to another to garner attention for his works, including installing ten-foot-high red neon letters spelling out his name on his building, not only to attract attention but to signal he was a pioneer in his use of electric light. Monet thought of the perennial publicist when developing a strategy to counteract his own plight. He recalled: “For some time, my friends and I had been systematically rejected by the abovementioned jury. What were we to do? It’s not just about painting, you’ve got to sell, you’ve got to live. The dealers didn’t want anything to do with us. We needed to show our work, but where? Nadar, the great Nadar, who is so kind, lent us his place.”24Émile Taboureaux, “Claude Monet,” La Vie Moderne (June 12, 1880): 380–82, quoted in Lionel Venturi, Les Archives de l’Impressionnisme. Lettres de Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley et autres. Mémoirs de Paul Durand-Ruel (New York: Burt Franklin, 1968), 2:340.

Fig. 5. Honoré Daumier, Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art, May 25, 1862, lithograph, image: 10 1/2 x 8 11/16 in. (26.7 x 22.1 cm); plate: 17 1/2 x 12 5/16 in. (44.5 x 31.3 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1926
Fig. 5. Honoré Daumier, Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art, May 25, 1862, lithograph, image: 10 1/2 x 8 11/16 in. (26.7 x 22.1 cm); plate: 17 1/2 x 12 5/16 in. (44.5 x 31.3 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1926
Nadar knew his audience, how to market himself, and how to sell photographs. In fact, his audacious marketing schemes did not go unnoticed by his friend and former colleague Honoré Daumier (1808–1879), who caricatured him in a print entitled “Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art,” in which a top-hatted Nadar looks down from a tethered balloon at all the shops advertising his medium (Fig. 5). Arguably, Monet was trying to raise art to the height of photography by placing his top-hatted gentleman high above the city, like Nadar in his balloon, and adopting strategies he felt would appeal to his market, to the place where he exhibited, and to the unique and thoroughly modern vision that photography afforded, with the spectator in mind, above all.

Aimee Marcereau DeGalan
April 2021

Notes

  1. While many of the contemporary reviews of the 1874 exhibition could conceivably apply to both pictures, hence the long debate over which canvas was exhibited, an English review by Frederick Wedmore noted that “Claude Monet sends the ‘Boulevard des Capucines’ a rough oil sketch some four feet long.” This measurement must refer to a framed dimension and could only relate to the width of the horizontal Pushkin canvas, as the framed height of the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard is 43 3/8 in. See Frederick Wedmore, “Pictures in Paris: The Exhibition of ‘Les Impressionistes’,” The Examiner (June 13, 1874): 633–34, as cited in Ed Lilley, “A Rediscovered English Review of the 1874 Impressionist Exhibition,” Burlington Magazine 154, no. 1317 (2012): 845.

  2. See Patrice de Moncan, Les grandes boulevards de Paris: De la Bastille à la Madeleine (Paris: Les Éditions de Mécène, 1997), 348–63, cited in Simon Kelly and April M. Watson, Impressionist France: Visons of Nation from Le Gray to Monet, exh. cat. (St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Art Museum, 2013), 104. See also James H. Rubin, Impressionism and the Modern Landscape: Productivity, Technology, and Urbanization from Manet to Van Gogh (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 5–6, 10, 30–32, 36, 46–47, 160, 203n36, 235.

  3. See the accompanying technical essay by Diana M. Jaskierny.

  4. As per a note in the curatorial files, Charles de Meixmoron de Dombasle bought ten works from Monet in 1873. He acquired an additional three sketches in 1875. Although these are not individually enumerated, it is likely that the Nelson-Atkins Boulevard des Capucines was in the 1875 transaction. I am grateful to Simon Kelly, curator of modern and contemporary art, St. Louis Art Museum, for sharing information and his thoughts about the 1875 sale. See Monet’s entry under May 4, 1875, “M. de Dombasle / [illegible] / 3 esquisses 300 [francs]” (Monet’s livre de comptes, ventes janvier–juillet 1875, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris. A photocopy of this page is in the curatorial object file, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art).

  5. In the spring of 1874, following the first Impressionist exhibition, Jean- Baptiste Faure bought four works by Monet for 4,000 francs, including the Pushkin Boulevard des Capucines. The pricing structure of 1,000 francs per picture, suggests Monet considered this a finished work. For the notation of Monet’s account books, see Anne Distel, Impressionism: The First Collectors, trans. Barbara Perround-Benson (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990), 84.

  6. Daniel Wildenstein, Monet: Catalogue Raisonné; Werkverzeichnis, trans. Josephine Bacon (Cologne: Wildenstein Institute and Taschen, 1996), 2:124–25. The acceptance of the 1873 date is predicated not only on the inscription of the Pushkin picture but also early reviews of the Pushkin picture written during Monet’s lifetime by his friend, Gustave Geffroy. See Gustave Geffroy, “Chronique—Claude Monet,” La Justice (March 15, 1883): 2, and Gustave Geffroy, Claude Monet: Sa vie, son œuvre (Paris: G. Crès, 1922), 263. There was no snow in Paris in the fall of 1873, but there were several days of thick hoarfrost and frost, in November and December 1873, which could account for the white covering on the hansom cabs and ground in the Nelson-Atkins picture. It did not snow until February 9, 1874. See the Observatoire de la marine et du bureau des longitudes, Paris et Observatoire de Montsouris, Bulletin mensuel de l’Observatoire Physique Central de Monsouris (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1873/1874), https://bibnum.obspm.fr/ark:/11287/2BfGK and https://bibnum.obspm.fr/ark:/11287/VPTcP.

  7. See Joel Isaacson, “Monet: Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival,” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide 20, no. 1 (Spring 2021): https://doi.org/10.29411/ncaw.2021.20.1.3. Daniel Wildenstein believes Monet traveled to Amsterdam in the spring of 1874. See Daniel Wildenstein, Monet, or The Triumph of Impressionism (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1996), 1:108–09.

  8. Isaacson, “Monet: Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival.” Gustave Geffroy first made this connection to carnival in an 1883 review of the Pushkin picture at Durand-Ruel, a position he maintained along with the painting’s 1873 date in his 1922 biography, authored nearly twenty-five years into his friendship with Monet. See Geffroy, “Chronique—Claude Monet,” 2, and Geffroy, Claude Monet, 263, where he titled the Pushkin painting Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival.

  9. For the weather in February 1873, see the Observatoire de la marine et du bureau des longitudes, Paris et Observatoire de Montsouris, (1873), 2:75, https://bibnum.obspm.fr/ark:/11287/2BfGK. In his 1867 paintings realized from the balcony of the Louvre (Quai du Louvre and Garden of the Princess; see fig. 4), Monet capitalized on the crowds who were in town that summer for the International Exposition. He planned for this again in 1878, when he obtained permission to paint from two different balconies in an effort to capture the national holiday in celebration of France’s recovery from the war with Prussia. The paintings are The Rue Montorgeuil, 30th of June 1878 (1878; Musée d’Orsay, Paris) and The Rue Saint-Denis 30th of June 1878 (1878; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen).

  10. For more on this effect, see Kermit S. Champa, Studies in Early Impressionism (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973), 13, cited in Charles F. Stuckey, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, exh. cat. (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 140.

  11. Several of these formal characteristics, including the use of an elevated bird’s eye view, were also related to his familiarity with Japanese ukiyo-e prints by Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858) and Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849). However, the prints do not present the figures in a sketch-like manner as Monet did, nor as early contemporary photography did.

  12. For more information about Nadar, see Maria Morris Hambourg, Françoise Heilbrun, and Paul Néagu, Nadar (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995). See also Sharon Larson, “Rethinking Historical Authenticity: Photography, Nadar and Haussmann’s Paris,” Equinoxes: A Graduate Journal of French and Francophone Studies, no. 5 (spring/summer 2005), https://www.brown.edu/Research/Equinoxes/journal/Issue%205/eqx5_larson.htm; and Helene Bocard, Nadar (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

  13. Paloma Alarcó, The Impressionists and Photography, exh. cat. (Madrid: Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2019), 159.

  14. Cited in Watson’s catalogue entry for Hippolyte Jouvin. See Kelly and Watson, Impressionist France, nos. 19–20, p. 110.

  15. Monet first adopted an elevated vantage point in his painting Garden at Saint-Adresse, 1867, oil on canvas, 38 5/8 x 51 1/8 in. (98.1 x 129.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, as noted in Charles S. Moffett, Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974), 159.

  16. Richard Thompson, Monet and Architecture, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery, 2018), 92.

  17. For an example of a work produced by Le Gray from this vantage point, see Gustave Le Gray, Panorama de Paris, vers le Pont Neuf, about 1859, albumen collodion print on glass, 15 3/4 x 20 1/8 in. (40 x 51 cm), Musée d’Orsay, Paris, 1985.129, cited in Thompson, Monet and Architecture, 92.

  18. George T. M. Shackelford, “Painter of Modern Life: Monet and the City,” in Claude Monet: The Truth of Nature, exh. cat. Denver Art Museum (New York: Prestel, 2019), 52.

  19. Shackelford, “Painter of Modern Life,” 52.

  20. Shackelford, “Painter of Modern Life,” 52–53.

  21. For more on the history of photography and its relationship to Impressionism, see Alarcó, The Impressionists and Photography, 19–28.

  22. In 1865, Monet submitted two works to the Salon and gained one acceptance. He continued to submit to the Salons of 1867, 1868, 1869, and 1870, with only one painting accepted, in 1868. As has been shown by Virginia Spate, Monet had some success selling a number of pictures to Paul Durand-Ruel and a few other collectors in 1872–73; however, these were generally more conservative paintings, not the type of subject matter or approach to figure and form as seen in Monet’s Boulevards paintings. See Virginia Spate, Claude Monet: The Color of Time (London: Thames and Hudson, 1992), 89.

  23. As Simon Kelly has shown, it is possible that Monet was making a “thoughtful attempt to tap into an established market for landscape etudes and esquisses dating back several decades at least until the start of the century.” I am extremely grateful to Kelly, who shared his insight on this aspect of Monet’s marketing strategy, as discussed in his unpublished paper, “Monet and Commercial Strategy” (presented at the Musée d’Orsay, 2009).

  24. Émile Taboureaux, “Claude Monet,” La Vie Moderne (June 12, 1880): 380–82, quoted in Lionel Venturi, Les Archives de l’Impressionnisme. Lettres de Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley et autres. Mémoirs de Paul Durand-Ruel (New York: Burt Franklin, 1968), 2:340.

Technical Entry
Citation

Chicago:

Diana M. Jaskierny, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” technical entry in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.2088

MLA:

Jaskierny, Diana M. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” technical entry. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.2088

Fig. 6. Detail of bottom edge original turnover creases and filled tack holes, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 6. Detail of bottom edge original turnover creases and filled tack holes, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)

Boulevard des Capucines was completed on an estimated linen canvas with a pronounced twill weavetwill weave: A canvas weave in which one weft thread passes over one or more warp threads before passing under two or more warp threads, creating a pronounced diagonal pattern.. Although Monet frequently purchased prepared canvases from a variety of artist suppliersartist supplier(s): Also called colormen and color merchants. Artist suppliers prepared materials for artists. This tradition dates back to the Medieval period, but the industrialization of the nineteenth century increased their commerce. It was during this time that ready-made paints in tubes, commercially prepared canvases, and standard-format supports were available to artists for sale through these suppliers. It is sometimes possible to identify the supplier from stamps or labels found on the reverse of the artwork (see canvas stamp). such as Ange Ottoz, Vielle-Troisgros, Hardy-Allen, and Deforge-Carpentier, the painting is fully linedlining: A procedure used to reinforce a weakened canvas that involves adhering a second fabric support using adhesive, most often a glue-paste mixture, wax, or synthetic adhesive. with no identifying canvas stampcanvas stamp: An ink stamp, often present on the reverse of the canvas, signifying the company that sold or prepared the canvas. As these companies sometimes performed framing and restorations, these stamps could also reflect these services..1David Bomford, Jo Kirby, John Leighton, and Ashok Roy, Art in the Making: Impressionism (London: Yale University Press, 1991), 144–45. See also Anthea Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and the Making of Modernity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 104–05. It is clear, however, that the current painting size is somewhat larger than its original size. Original tack holes and creases from the original turnover edgeturnover edge: The junction between the picture plane and the tacking margins. are visible along the bottom edge of the picture planepicture plane: The two-dimensional surface where the artist applies paint., indicating that the current height is slightly larger than the original dimensions (Fig. 6). In addition, the paint layer stops short of the left, right, and top edges of the picture plane and corresponds to the creases associated with the original turnover edges (Fig. 7). Together these attributes reveal that the original size of the painting was approximately 58.5 centimeters by 78.5 centimeters, while the painting’s current dimensions are 60.3 centimeters by 80.4 centimeters. Neither set of dimensions correspond to standard stretcher sizesstandard-format supports: Commercially prepared supports available through art suppliers, which gained popularity in the nineteenth century during the industrialization of art materials. Available in three formats figure (portrait), paysage (landscape), and marine (marine), these were numbered 1 through 120 to indicate their size. For each numbered size, marine and paysage had two options available: a larger format (haute) and smaller (basse) format. found in historic supplier catalogs. The previous, possibly original, stretcher was replaced in 1972 by James Roth, who described it as “single mortice [sic] corners, butt-end, with (2) crossbars and wood keys.”2James Roth, December 14, 1972, treatment report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, F72-35. One analog photograph of the painting reverse in the conservation file shows this support before it was replaced with the current stretcher.3Roth, treatment report, 1972.

Fig. 7. Detail illustrating the original left edge of the picture plane, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 7. Detail illustrating the original left edge of the picture plane, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)

The ground layerground layer: An opaque preparatory layer applied to the support, either commercially or by the artist, to prevent absorption of the paint into the canvas or panel. See also priming layer. was commercially prepared. Its thin and even application extends onto the tacking marginstacking margins: The outer edges of canvas that wrap around and are attached to the stretcher or strainer with tacks or staples. See also tacking edge., and there is neither cusping nor a buildup of ground along the turnover edge that would indicate application by hand after the canvas was stretched. Like many Impressionist painters, Monet commonly purchased canvases with tinted or colored grounds specifically to emphasize the tonality of the composition, and thus itself to become a part of the composition.4Monet was known for using colored or tinted grounds during the 1870s, some of which may have been applied by Ottoz, others by the artist himself. Without sampling, it is unclear on this painting if there is one tinted ground or two thinly applied grounds with the upper layer being tinted. Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and the Making of Modernity, 70-73. See also Bomford et al., Art in the Making: Impressionism, 145. Here its warm, blush tone creates simultaneous contrastsimultaneous contrast: Simultaneous contrast is the interaction of two colors when placed side by side. Depending on the colors, the viewer’s perception of the color will change. For example, blue will cause red to appear orange, and red causes blue to appear green. Complementary colors (colors that are opposite each other in a color wheel, such as red and green, blue and orange, or yellow and purple) produce most striking simultaneous contrast. While simultaneous contrast was formulated by the French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889) in his treatise The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors, and Their Applications to the Arts (1839), the use of simultaneous contrast in painting predates the treatise by more than 100 years. with the surrounding paint, in which neighboring colors are amplified. In 1888 Monet discussed his use of this color effect, stating that “. . . colour owes its brightness to force of contrast rather than to its inherent qualities; . . . primary colours look brightest when they are brought into contact with their complementaries.”5Bomford et al., Art in the Making: Impressionism, 88. For a larger discussion on Monet’s use of color and simultaneous contrast see pages 87-89. This is especially noticeable in the sky of Boulevard des Capucines, where the ground layer appears orange in contrast to the blue (Fig. 8). In this detail, the blush and blue tones are striking when compared to the white brushstrokes seen near the center of the image.6While Monet often used simultaneous contrast within the paint layer, his use of the ground layer to amplify colors, as seen here in Boulevard des Capucines, can also be found in The Beach at Trouville (1870; The National Gallery, London) and The Petit Bras of the Seine at Argenteuil (1872; The National Gallery, London). See Bomford et al., Art in the Making: Impressionism, 129-30, 144–45. Due to this optical illusion the ground color seems to shift slightly across the painting, even though microscopy suggests that the ground is consistent in composition, with isolated blue and red particles, and more heavily concentrated black and coarse yellow particles. While in the sky the ground layer appears orange, in the foreground, the ground layer appears to be a cooler red tone where it lies adjacent to gray-green paint strokes (Fig. 6).

Fig. 8. Detail of top left corner simultaneous contrast in the sky, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 8. Detail of top left corner simultaneous contrast in the sky, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)

Throughout the paint layer, a variety of applications are found, ranging from thin and dry brushwork to more heavily applied “dabs” within figures and highlights. Overall, there is limited low impastoimpasto: A thick application of paint, often creating texture such as peaks and ridges., and each compositional element’s handling varies from the next, creating depth and a sense of atmospheric perspectiveatmospheric perspective: An artistic technique used to create the illusion of depth in a composition in which distant elements are cooler and more diffuse, causing them to recede.. There is no apparent underdrawingunderdrawing: A drawn or painted sketch beneath the paint layer. The underdrawing can be made from dry materials, such as graphite or charcoal, or wet materials, such as ink or paint. or underpaintingunderpainting: The first applications of paint that begin to block in color and loosely define the compositional elements. Also called ébauche. visible in standard viewing light, nor is one detected in infrared reflectographyinfrared reflectography (IRR): A form of infrared imaging that exploits the behavior of painting materials at wavelengths beyond those accessible to infrared photography. These advantages sometimes include a continuing increase in the transparency of pigments beyond wavelengths accessible to infrared photography (i.e, beyond 1,000 nanometers), rendering underdrawing more clearly. The resulting image is called an infrared reflectogram. Devices that came into common use in the 1980s such as the infrared vidicon effectively revealed these features but suffered from lack of sharpness and uneven response. Vidicons continue to be used out to 2,200 nanometers but several newer pixelated detectors including indium gallium arsenide and indium antimonide array detectors offer improvements. All of these devices are optimally used with filters constraining their response to those parts of the infrared spectrum that reveal the most within the constraints of the palette used for a given painting. They can be used for transmitted light imaging as well as in reflection..7The painting was examined with a Hamamatsu infrared vidicon camera. The order in which the compositional elements were painted is difficult to determine, as it appears Monet revisited sections numerous times. The center of the composition is especially sketchy and dry-brushed. The sky and pale foreground seem to have been thinly laid-in first, with reservereserve: An area of the composition left unpainted with the intention of inserting a feature at a later stage in the painting process. areas for the trees silhouetted against the sky and select figures in the foreground. In these instances, some boundaries of the sky and foreground are slightly overpainted with trees and figures, respectively, while generous amounts of exposed ground remain. Monet returned to add paint in the sky, occasionally pulling the brush over tree elements and chimneys in a scumblescumble: A thin layer of opaque or semi-opaque paint that partially covers and modifies the underlying paint. (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9. Detail of a reserve left for a tree in the sky, and a scumble of paint over the tree and chimneys, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 9. Detail of a reserve left for a tree in the sky, and a scumble of paint over the tree and chimneys, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 10. Detail of wet-over-wet technique between the figures and foreground in the lower right of the central group, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874), indicated with a purple arrow. The green outline indicates reserve area and exposed ground around figures.
Fig. 10. Detail of wet-over-wet technique between the figures and foreground in the lower right of the central group, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874), indicated with a purple arrow. The green outline indicates reserve area and exposed ground around figures.
Fig. 10. Detail of wet-over-wet technique between the figures and foreground in the lower right of the central group, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874), indicated with a purple arrow. The green outline indicates reserve area and exposed ground around figures.
Fig. 11. Detail of figures painted over the foreground without reserves, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 11. Detail of figures painted over the foreground without reserves, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 11. Detail of figures painted over the foreground without reserves, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)

The foreground was partially wet when figures were placed in their reserves, as can be seen in the lower right section of Figure 10. Here deep blue of the figures has been pulled through the adjacent cool-toned foreground, while the warm ground layer peeks through both the figures and the foreground. Additionally, although there were reserves left for some figures, many were painted on top of the then dried foreground, with no reserve or surrounding exposed ground (Fig. 11). This indicates that while some figures were clearly anticipated in the early stages of painting, others were added by Monet later in the painting process as he finalized the composition. In both instances, and throughout the painting, many compositional elements were painted with a light touch, allowing the paint to only skim the canvas weave tops and skip the twill interstices, revealing a variety of layers beneath (Fig. 10). Anthea Callen described this as giving “shimmering effects that evoke both the wintery atmosphere and the sensation of distance from a high viewpoint [. . . ].”8Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and the Making of Modernity, 41. Highlights, such as on the carriages, were among the last painted, with a thicker application and with some strokes blending wet-over-wetwet-over-wet: An oil painting technique which involves drawing a stroke of one color across the wet paint of another color. with surrounding paint that had not quite dried (Fig. 12).

Fig. 12. Detail of carriages, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 12. Detail of carriages, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 12. Detail of carriages, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 13. Detail in raking light, illustrating canvas weave interference, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 13. Detail in raking light, illustrating canvas weave interference, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)
Fig. 13. Detail in raking light, illustrating canvas weave interference, Boulevard des Capucines (1873-1874)

The painting has undergone at least three conservation treatments. It originally entered the collection with a glue-based lining that was removed and replaced in 1972 with a wax-based lining.9Roth, treatment report, 1972. While the original canvas is twill weave, a secondary vertical weave pattern is visible, likely weave interferenceweave interference: A distortion that can occur when excess heat or pressure is applied to a painting, usually during the lining process. As a result, the original canvas weave texture becomes more pronounced or the weave texture of the lining material becomes visible on the painting surface. Also called weave emphasis or weave accentuation. caused by an early lining fabric (Fig. 13).10The current lining material does not display this vertical texture. Labeled samples of the lining material removed in 1972 were retained in the object file, but also do not have a pronounced weave pattern that might have caused the vertical pattern. As neither the lining material removed in 1972 nor the current lining material added that same year have this pronounced pattern, it is likely that the treatment history of the painting included an even earlier lining. Areas of low impasto were slightly flattened during one of the lining processes. In 2006, the painting was cleaned, and a low-concentration synthetic varnish was applied in order to maintain a relatively “unvarnished” appearance while suitably saturating the paint layer.11Scott Heffley, September 29, 2006, treatment report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, F72-35.

Losses to the ground layer and subsequently paint layer are present throughout the painting, often forming horizontal cracks, and may relate to the painting’s lining or lining reversal history. In the 1972 condition report prior to treatment, the paint was noted as being friablefriable: When paint is no longer sufficiently bound. Friable paint often appears powdery or crumbles easily. and flaking, indicating that some loss pre-dates that lining reversal. The ground and paint layers are now stable, with no new flaking or delaminationdelamination: The separation of layers in a painting. Examples include separation of the original canvas from the lining canvas, or separation of the paint layer from the ground layer. visible. Overall there is minimal retouchingretouching: Paint application by a conservator or restorer to cover losses and unify the original composition. Retouching is an aspect of conservation treatment that is aesthetic in nature and that differs from more limited procedures undertaken solely to stabilize original material. Sometimes referred to as inpainting or retouch., with the majority found in the lower half and along the edges. There are areas that appear to be abrasionsabrasion: A loss of surface material due to rubbing, scraping, frequent touching, or inexpert solvent cleaning., but because of the dry-brush application, it is often difficult to differentiate between possible abrasion and Monet’s technique.

Diana M. Jaskierny
August 2020

Notes

  1. David Bomford, Jo Kirby, John Leighton, and Ashok Roy, Art in the Making: Impressionism (London: Yale University Press, 1991), 144–45. See also Anthea Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and the Making of Modernity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 104–05.

  2. James Roth, December 14, 1972, treatment report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, F72-35.

  3. Roth, treatment report, 1972.

  4. Monet was known for using colored or tinted grounds during the 1870s, some of which may have been applied by Ottoz, others by the artist himself. Without sampling, it is unclear on this painting if there is one tinted ground or two thinly applied grounds with the upper layer being tinted. Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and the Making of Modernity, 70–73. See also Bomford et al., Art in the Making: Impressionism, 145.

  5. Bomford et al., Art in the Making: Impressionism, 88. For a larger discussion on Monet’s use of color and simultaneous contrast see pages 87–89.

  6. While Monet often used simultaneous contrast within the paint layer, his use of the ground layer to amplify colors, as seen here in Boulevard des Capucines, can also be found in The Beach at Trouville (1870; The National Gallery, London) and The Petit Bras of the Seine at Argenteuil (1872; The National Gallery, London). See Bomford et al., Art in the Making: Impressionism, 129–30, 144–45.

  7. The painting was examined with a Hamamatsu infrared vidicon camera.

  8. Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and the Making of Modernity, 41.

  9. Roth, treatment report, 1972.

  10. The current lining material does not display this vertical texture. Labeled samples of the lining material removed in 1972 were retained in the object file, but also do not have a pronounced weave pattern that might have caused the vertical pattern. As neither the lining material removed in 1972 nor the current lining material added that same year have this pronounced pattern, it is likely that the treatment history of the painting included an even earlier lining.

  11. Scott Heffley, September 29, 2006, treatment report, Nelson-Atkins conservation file, F72-35.

Documentation
Citation

Chicago:

Glynnis Stevenson, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

MLA:

Stevenson, Glynnis. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

Provenance
Citation

Chicago:

Glynnis Stevenson, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

MLA:

Stevenson, Glynnis. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

Purchased from the artist by Charles Vaillant de Meixmoron de Dombasle (1839–1912), Diénay, France, 1875–1912 [1];

Inherited by his widow, Mme. de Meixmoron de Dombasle (née Lucie Marie Emma de Maillart de Landreville, 1848–1932), Diénay, France, 1912–1919;

Purchased from Mme. de Meixmoron de Dombasle by Bernheim-Jeune et Cie, Paris, stock no. 21631, June 22, 1919–November 15, 1919 [2];

Purchased from Bernheim-Jeune et Cie by Alex Reid, Glasgow, November 15, 1919–January 2, 1920;

Purchased from Reid by Mr. Robert Alfred and Mrs. Elizabeth Russe (née Allan, 1874–ca. 1937) Workman, Esq., London, January 2, 1920 [3];

Returned by the Workmans to Alex Reid, Glasgow;

Purchased from Reid by Knoedler and Company, London, Stock Book, No. 7206, January 3, 1924;

Transferred from Knoedler, London, to Knoedler, New York, Stock Book 7, No. 15819, November 21, 1924–January 23, 1925;

Purchased from Knoedler by James Horace Harding (1863–1929), New York, January 23, 1925;

Inherited by his widow, Dorothea Harding (née Barney, 1871–1935), Rumson, NJ, by 1929 [4];

With Knoedler and Company, New York, March 7–October 15, 1935 [5];

Transferred from Knoedler to Carroll Carstairs Gallery, New York, October 15, 1935–by April 11, 1945 at the latest [6];

Purchased from the Estate of Dorothea Harding, through Carroll Carstairs Gallery, New York, by “a private collector in America,” by April 11, 1945 [7];

Marshall Field III (1893–1956), Lloyd’s Neck, NY, and Chicago, by April 11, 1945–November 8, 1956 [8];

Inherited by his widow, Mrs. Marshall Field III (née Ruth Pruyn Phipps, 1908–1994), Lloyd’s Neck, NY, and New York City, 1956–December 4, 1972 [9];

Purchased from Mrs. Marshall Field III, through E. V. Thaw and Co., Inc, New York, by The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, 1972.

NOTES:

[1] According to Impressionnisme en Lorraine, exh. cat. (Nancy: Musée des Beaux-Arts, 1975), the painting was bought by Meixmoron de Dombasle in 1875 from Claude Monet and was in Meixmoron’s collection until his death in 1912.

[2] See letter from Bernheim-Jeune et C^ie^ to Glynnis Stevenson, NAMA, October 17, 2017, NAMA curatorial files. Durand-Ruel, Paris, purchased a half share of the painting from Bernheim-Jeune on June 23, 1919, and then sold their share back to Bernheim-Jeune on January 7, 1920. Durand-Ruel stock number was 11519. See email from Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel et Cie, Paris, to Nicole Myers, NAMA, curatorial file.

[3] Tate Britain, London, Alex Reid and Lefèvre archives, “1913–1920 Daybook,” TGA 2002/11/279.

[4] The painting was not sold in James Horace Harding’s estate sales of 1941. According to the Frick Collection, where James Horace Harding was on the Board of Trustees, there’s nothing in his correspondence related to the Nelson-Atkins picture. The Frick suspects that the painting was inherited by his widow, who inherited her husband’s estate, and then sold after her death in 1935. See email from Eugenie Fortier, Frick Art Reference Library Archives, New York, to Glynnis Stevenson, NAMA, April 3, 2017, NAMA curatorial files.

[5] See Knoedler label numbered 24721 on verso. The Estate of Mrs. Dorothea Horace Harding had the painting delivered to Knoedler on March 7, 1935. Upon receipt, Knoedler decided to retain the picture on commission rather than purchase it from the estate. See email Karen Mayer-Roux, Archivist, Special Collections, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, to Glynnis Stevenson, NAMA, October 11, 2019, NAMA curatorial files.

[6] Knoedler transferred the picture to Carroll Carstairs, New York. Knoedler Commission Book 3, Folio 69, CA 802, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles. See also M. Knoedler and Co. records, approximately 1848–1971. Series IV. Inventory cards, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles.

[7] According to The Frick Art Reference Library, New York, Photo Archives, artist file for Claude Monet (1840–1926), “Boulevard des Capucines”: “…after ownership by J. Horace Harding, the painting was sold by Carroll Carstairs Gallery, New York, to a private collector in America, then acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Field III, circa 1945.” See email from Eugenie Fortier, Frick Art Reference Library Archives, New York, to Glynnis Stevenson, NAMA, April 3, 2017, NAMA curatorial files.

[8] Boulevard des Capucines hung in the living room at the Fields’ Caumsett Estate in Lloyd Harbor, Long Island. See Matthew Bessell, Caumsett: The home of Marshall Field III in Lloyd Harbor, New York (Huntington, NY: Huntington Town Board, 1991), 51n48.

[9] Following the death of her husband in 1956, Field moved to an apartment in New York City. The Caumsett Estate was purchased by New York State on February 3, 1961 and converted into a state park. Though she sold off much of the art she inherited, Boulevard des Capucines was in her New York apartment when she sold the painting to The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art through E.V. Thaw, New York in 1972. See letter from E.V. Thaw and Co., Inc. to Mr. Ralph T. Coe, NAMA, November 21, 1974, NAMA curatorial files. Previous scholars confused Mrs. Marshall Field III and Mrs. Marshall Field IV. According to Matthew Bessell, Caumsett: The home of Marshall Field III in Lloyd Harbor, New York, Boulevard des Capucines was among the pictures inherited by Ruth Field after her husband’s death (p. 25). Ralph T. Coe states that the painting was owned by Ruth Field before being bought by NAMA; see Ralph T. Coe, “Claude Monet’s ‘Boulevard des Capucines’: After a Century,” Bulletin (The Nelson Gallery and Atkins Museum) 5, no. 3 (February 1976). Eugene Victor Thaw confirmed that the painting was purchased directly from Mrs. Marshall Field III not Mrs. Marshall Field IV; see letter from E.V. Thaw and Co. to Meghan Gray, NAMA, July 14, 2011, NAMA curatorial files.

Related Works
Citation

Chicago:

Glynnis Stevenson, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874," documentation in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

MLA:

Stevenson, Glynnis. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873, oil on canvas, 24 x 31 1/2 in. (61 x 80 cm), Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

Copies
Citation

Chicago:

Glynnis Stevenson, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

MLA:

Stevenson, Glynnis. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

Charles de Meixmoron de Dombasle, after Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, ca. 1875–1912, oil on cardboard, 127 3/16 x 88 9/16 in. (323 x 225 cm), private collection, France.

Exhibitions
Citation

Chicago:

Glynnis Stevenson, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

MLA:

Stevenson, Glynnis. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

Exposition des Peintres de l’École française du XIXe Siècle, Knoedler and Company, Paris, opened May 12, 1924, no. 42, as Les Grands Boulevards.

The 1870s in France, Carroll Carstairs Gallery, New York, December 1938, no cat., as Les Grands Boulevards.

A Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Claude Monet for the Benefit of the Children of Giverny, Wildenstein, New York, April 11–May 12, 1945, no. 17, as Les Grands Boulevards.

“What they said”: Postscript to Art Criticism For the benefit of the Museum of Modern Art on its 20th Anniversary, Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, November 28–December 17, 1949, no. 4, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Great French Paintings: An Exhibition in Memory of Chauncey McCormick, Art Institute of Chicago, January 20–February 20, 1955, no. 26, as Les Grands Boulevards.

Masterpieces of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Painting, National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., April 25–May 24, 1959, unnumbered, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Olympia’s Progeny; French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings (1865–1905), Wildenstein, New York, October 28–November 27, 1965, no. 12, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Four Masters of Impressionism: For the Benefit of The Lenox Hill Hospital New York, Acquavella Galleries, New York, October 24–November 30, 1968, no. 10, as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

“One Hundred Years of Impressionism:” A Tribute to Durand-Ruel: A Loan Exhibition for the Benefit of the New York University Art Collection, Wildenstein, New York, April 2–May 9, 1970, no. 18, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Centenaire de l’Impressionnisme, Grand Palais, Paris, September 21–November 24, 1974; Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, no. 30, as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Paintings by Monet, The Art Institute of Chicago, March 15–May 11, 1975, no. 36, as Boulevard des Capucines.

City Views, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, May 31–July 10, 1983, no. 38A, as Paris. Boulevard des Capucines.

The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., January 17–April 6, 1986; The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, April 19–July 6, 1986, no. 7, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Impressionism: Selections from Five American Museums, The Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, November 4–December 31, 1989; The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, January 27–March 25, 1990; The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, April 21–June 17, 1990; Saint Louis Art Museum, July 14–September 9, 1990; The Toledo Museum of Art, September 30–November 25, 1990, no. 49, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Monet: A Retrospective, Bridgestone Museum of Art, Tokyo, February 11–April 7, 1994; Nagoya City Art Museum, April 16–June 12, 1994; Hiroshima Museum of Art, June 18–July 31, 1994, no. 19, as Le boulevard des Capucines.

Claude Monet: 1840–1926, The Art Institute of Chicago, July 22–November 26, 1995, no. 39, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Impressionists in Winter: Effets de Neige, The Phillips Collection, Washington, D. C., September 19, 1998–January 3, 1999; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, January 30–May 2, 1999, no. 8, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Tempus Fugit: Time Flies, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, October 15–December 31, 2000, no. II.7, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Monet and Japan, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, March 9–June 11, 2001; Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth, July 7–September 16, 2001, no. 7, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Becoming Edvard Munch: Influence, Anxiety, and Myth, The Art Institute of Chicago, February 14–April 26, 2009, no. 127, as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Impressionist France: Visions of Nation from Le Gray to Monet, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, October 19, 2013–February 9, 2014; Saint Louis Art Museum, March 16–July 6, 2014, no. 15, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Impression, soleil levant: l’histoire vraie du chef-d’oeuvre de Claude Monet, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris, September 18, 2014–January 18, 2015, no. 47, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Monet and the Birth of Impressionism, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, March 11–June 21, 2015, no. 61, as The Boulevard des Capucines / Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Unfinished: Thoughts Left Visible, The Met Breuer, New York, March 1–September 4, 2016, no. 109, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Claude Monet: The Truth of Nature, Denver Art Museum, October 21, 2019–February 2, 2020; Museum Barberini, Potsdam, February 1–May 30, 2020, no. 18 (Denver only), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

References
Citation

Chicago:

Glynnis Stevenson, “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation in Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, ed., French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021), https://doi.org/10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

MLA:

Stevenson, Glynnis. “Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873—1874,” documentation. French Paintings, 1600–1945: The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, edited by Aimee Marcereau DeGalan, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2021. doi: 10.37764/78973.5.626.4033

E[rnest] Renart, Dictionnaire Biographique International des Collectionneurs (Paris: Imprimerie de l’Armorial Français, 1895), 22.

Emile Maton, Dictionnaire Biographique International des Artistes (Paris: Imprimerie de l’Armorial Français, 1901), 32.

Marc Elder, A [sic] Giverny, chez Claude Monet (Paris: Bernheim-Jeune, 1924), 85, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Camille Mauclair, Claude Monet, 2nd ed. (1924; Paris: Les Éditions Rieder, 1927), 40, (repro.), as Le Boulevard, The boulevard, Der Boulevard, Il corso, and El “Boulevard”.

Exposition des Peintres de l’École française du XIXe Siècle, exh. cat. (Paris: Knoedler, 1924), 13, as Les Grands Boulevards.

Raymond Régamey, “La Formation de Claude Monet,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts (February 1927): 82, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Xenia [de Tunzelman Bootle-Wilbraham] Lathom, Claude Monet (London: Phillip Allan, 1931), 64, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines and Le Boulevard.

Alfred M. Frankfurter, “Panorama of a Great Decade: ‘The 1870s’,” Art News 37, no. 10 (December 3, 1938): 10, 12, (repro.), as Les Grands Boulevards.

Maurice Malingue, Claude Monet (Monaco: Les Documents d’Art, 1943), 61, 146, (repro.), as Le Boulevard.

Possibly Camille Mauclair, Claude Monet et l’impressionnisme (Paris: J. Renard, 1943), 45, as Boulevards.

A Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Claude Monet for the Benefit of the Children of Giverny, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein, 1944), 28, 31, (repro.), as Les Grands Boulevards.

John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, rev. 4th ed. (1946; New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973), 320–22, 324, 326, 340n30, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Oscar Reuterswärd, Monet: En konstnärshistorik (Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, 1948), 70–72, 76, 81, 281, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines i snö.

“What they said”: Postscript to Art Criticism For the benefit of the Museum of Modern Art on its 20th Anniversary, exh. cat. (New York: Durand-Ruel, 1949), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Great French Paintings: An Exhibition in Memory of Chauncey McCormick, exh. cat. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1955), unpaginated, (repro.), as Les Grands Boulevards.

Jean Leymarie, Impressionism: Biographical and Critical Study, vol. 2, trans. James Emmons (Lausanne, Switzerland: Skira, 1955), 60–61, 64, 132, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Isabel Stevenson Monro and Kate M. Monro, Index to Reproductions of European Paintings: A guide to pictures in more than three hundred books (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1956), 425.

Claude Monet: An exhibition of paintings arranged by the Arts Council of Great Britain in association with the Edinburgh Festival Society, exh. cat. (London: Tate Gallery, 1957), 11, 22, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Denis Rouart, Claude Monet, trans. James Emmons (Geneva: Éditions d’Art Albert Skira, 1958), 52–53.

Masterpieces of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Painting, exh. cat. (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1959), 36, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ralph T. Coe, “Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in Washington,” Burlington Magazine 101, no. 675 (June 1959): 245, as Boulevard des Capucines.

William C[hapin] Seitz, Claude Monet (New York: Harry N. Abrams, [1960]), 92, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Aaron Scharf, “Painting, Photography, and the Image of Movement,” Burlington Magazine 104, no. 710 (May 1962): 188, 190, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jean Leymarie, French Painting: The Nineteenth Century, trans. James Emmons (Geneva: Éditions d’Art Albert Skira, 1962), 158, 189, 229, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Denis Rouart and Thérèse Charpentier, Charles de Meixmoron: 1839–1912, exh. cat. (Nancy: Musée des Beaux Arts, 1962), unpaginated.

Henry A. La Farge, “Independence through Interdependence,” Art News 64, no. 7 (November 1965): 50–51, 66, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Olympia’s Progeny: French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings (1865–1905), exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein, 1965), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John Rewald, Die Geschichte des Impressionismus: Schicksal und Werk der Maler einer grossen Epoche der Kunst (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1965), 138–39, 196, 198, 399, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

S[amuel] C. Burchell, Age of Progress, vol. 11 (New York: Time, 1966), 62, (repro.).

Charles Merrill Mount, Monet (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966), 233–34, 430, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Margaretta M. Salinger, Claude Monet (1840–1926) (New York: Harry N. Abrams, [1966]), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

H[jorvardur] H[arvard] Arnason and Peter Kalb, History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography, 5th ed. (1968; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004), 31–32, 36, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris (Les Grands Boulevards).

Marie Berhaut, Caillebotte: The Impressionist, trans. Dana Imber (Lausanne: International Art Book, 1968), 30, 34, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Four Masters of Impressionism: For the Benefit of the Lenox Hill Hospital New York, exh. cat. (New York: Acquavella Galleries, 1968), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Richard W. Murphy, The World of Cézanne: 1839–1906 (1968; New York: Time-Life Books, 1971), 58, 64–65, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Aaron Scharf, Art and Photography, rev. ed. (1968; Harmondsworth, United Kingdom: Penguin, 1974), 170–72, 352, 383, 394, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“One Hundred Years of Impressionism”: A Tribute to Durand-Ruel; A Loan Exhibition for the Benefit of the New York University Art Collection, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein, 1970), (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Phoebe Pool, Impressionism (London: Thames and Hudson, 1970), 16–17, 117, 272, 284, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Departmental Accessions,” Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 102 (July 1, 1971–June 30, 1972): 41, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ellen Wilson, American Painter in Paris: A Life of Mary Cassatt (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1971), 59–61, 203, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Luigina Rossi Bortolatto, L’opera completa di Claude Monet, 1870–1889, new series (1972; Milan: Rizzoli, 1978), no. 74, pp. 73–74, 113, 115, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines a Parigi.

Kunio Tsuji, Yoshiaki Inui, and Shuji Takashina, Monet et l’Impressionnisme (Tokyo: Chuokoron-Sha, 1972), 119, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Joy Newton, “Emile Zola and the French Impressionist Novel,” L’Esprit Créateur 13, no. 4 (Winter 1973): 322, 325, as Boulevard des Capucines.

John Rewald, “The Impressionist Brush,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 32, no. 3 (1973–1974): 24, 27–28, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Donald Hoffmann, “A Beautiful Monet is Acquired by Nelson Gallery,” Star: Sunday Magazine of Kansas City Star 93, no. 126 (January 21, 1973): S10–13, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Monet’s Snowy Boulevard,” Kansas City Star 93, no. 129 (January 24, 1973): unpaginated, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Try this Quick Quiz,” Kansas City Star 93, no. 133 (January 28, 1973): 4B, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Douglas Davis, “Picture Puzzle at the Met,” Newsweek (January 29, 1973): 77, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Major Accession,” Gallery Events (The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) (February 1973): unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

B. Drummond Ayres Jr., “Kansas City Says Its Time Is Here,” Special to New York Times 122, no. 42,062 (March 23, 1973): 78, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Mrs. R.E. Weavering, “A Joy Forever: Nelson Gallery visitors cluster around the new acquisition, Monet’s “Boulevard des Capucines.” The impressionist work will give pleasure to many for many years to come, says one reader,” Kansas City Star (March 26, 1973): (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Gifts to Nelson Art Gallery Result in Record Purchases,” Kansas City Star 93, no. 210 (April 15, 1973): 10A, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Donald Hoffmann, “Gifts to the Gallery,” Kansas City Star 93, no. 294 (July 8, 1973): E[1], as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Recent Accessions of American and Canadian Museums: October–December 1972,” Art Quarterly 36, no. 3 (Autumn 1973): 268, 283, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Elsye W. Allison, “Jeans Party Provides Last Fling for BOTARs: On the Scene,” Kansas City Star (October 29, 1973): 12C, as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Donald Hoffmann, “Gifts Grace Gallery’s 40th Year,” Kansas City Times 106, no. 82 (December 12, 1973): 1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Kansas City Woman Gives Nelson Gallery A $1-Million Degas,” Special to New York Times 123, no. 42,326 (December 12, 1973): 62, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ross E. Taggart and George L. McKenna, eds., Handbook of the Collections in The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Missouri, vol. 1, Art of the Occident, 5th ed. (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1973), 150, 258, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Donald Hoffmann, “Nelson Gallery Construction To Start on the Second Floor,” Kansas City Times 106, no. 265 (July 13, 1974): 3A, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Carl R. Baldwin, The Impressionist Epoch, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974), 2, 15–16, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

M. A. Bessonova, ed., Zhivopis’ impressionistov. stoletnemu jubileju pervoj vystavki francuzkih hudoznikov-impressionistov (1874–1974), exh. cat. (USSR: Ministry of Culture, 1974), unpaginated.

Anne Dayez, Michel Hoog, and Charles S. Moffett, Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974), 46, 59, 159–64, 171, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Hélène Adhémar, “Centenaire de l’Impressionnisme,” Le petit Journal des grandes Expositions (1974): unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jean Haley, “Million-Dollar Monet Goes Home,” Kansas City Times 106, no. 312 (September 6, 1974): [1], (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Le Centenaire de l’Impressionisme,” Jours de France 51, no. 1031 (September 16–22, 1974): 75, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Edith Hoffmann, “Impressionists at the Grand Palais,” Burlington Magazine 116, no. 860 (November 1974): 699, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marcel Wallenstein, “Impressionists Back Home in Paris,” Kansas City Times 107, no. 48 (November 2, 1974): 18C, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John House, Impressionism: Its Masters, Its Precursors, and Its Influence in Britain, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1974), 40.

Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet: Biographie et catalogue raisonné, vol. 1, 1840–1881: Peintures (Lausanne: La Bibliothèque des Arts, 1974), no. 293, pp. 65, 240–41, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

“Editorial: The Centenary of Impressionism,” Apollo 101, no. 155 (January 1975): 5–7, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Elyse W. Allison, “Chinese Exhibition Social Organizer Knows Her Art,” Kansas City Star 95, no. 201 (April 6, 1975): 4C, as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Linda Dalrymple Henderson, “Alfred Sisley’s ‘The Flood on the Road to Saint-Germain’,” Bulletin: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston 6, nos. 2–4 (Summer 1975–Winter 1976): 25–26, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Joel Isaacson, “Monet in Chicago,” Burlington Magazine 117, no. 867 (June 1975): 429, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Steven Z. Levine, “Monet’s Pairs,” Arts Magazine 49, no. 10 (June 1975): 74, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Der Einzelne und die Masse: Kunstwerke des 19. Und 20. Jahrhunderts, exh. cat. (Recklinghausen, Germany: Städtische Kunsthalle Recklinghausen, 1975), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Impressionnisme en Lorraine, exh. cat. (Nancy: Musée des Beaux-Arts, 1975), unpaginated, as Boulevard des Capucines.

André Masson, Grace Seiberling, and J. Patrice Marandel, Paintings by Monet, exh. cat. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1975), 26–27, 30, 34, 90–91, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ralph T. Coe, “Claude Monet’s ‘Boulevard des Capucines’: After a Century,” Bulletin (The Nelson Gallery and Atkins Museum) 5, no. 3 (February 1976): 5–10, 12–15, 16n9, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Kirk Varnedoe, “Gustave Caillebotte in Context,” Arts Magazine 50, no. 9 (May 1976): 95, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Denys Sutton, “Book Reviews: Le Dossier Monet,” Apollo 103, no. 172 (June 1976): 530.

Alice Bellony-Rewald, The Lost World of the Impressionists (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1976), 180, 183, 186, 283, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Maria and Godfrey Blunden, Impressionists and Impressionism, trans. James Emmons (New York: Rizzoli, 1976), 136, 237, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Sam Hunter, John Jacobus, and Daniel Wheeler, Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography, 3rd rev. ed. (1976; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004), 10, 19–20, 93, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

J. Kirk T. Varnedoe and Thomas P. Lee, Gustave Caillebotte: A Retrospective Exhibition, exh. cat. (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1976), 111, 147–48, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Patricia Pate Havlice, World Painting Index (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977), 1:809; 2:1320, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ralph T. Coe, The Kenneth and Helen Spencer Art Reference Library: Given to Complement the Nelson Gallery Collections 1962 (Independence, MO: Graham Graphics, 1978), unpaginated, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Michel Hoog, Monet (London: Eyre Methuen, 1978), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Joel Isaacson, Claude Monet: Observation and Reflection (Oxford: Phaidon, 1978), 8, 16, 205.

Barbara Ehrlich White, ed., Impressionism in Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978), 47, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris (Les Grands Boulevards).

Robert H. Terte, “The Phenomenal Nelson Gallery,” Antiques World 1, no. 3 (January 1979): 46.

Steven Z. Levine, “The Window Metaphor and Monet’s Windows,” Arts Magazine 54, no. 3 (November 1979): 101, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Brian Petrie, Claude Monet: The First of the Impressionists (Oxford: Phaidon, 1979), 5, 9–10, 40, 42, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

William C. Seitz, Claude Monet (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1979), 92, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Kirk Varnedoe, “The Artifice of Candor: Impressionism and Photography Reconsidered,” Art in America 68, no. 1 (January 1980): 71, 73, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Director,” Kansas City Star 100, no. 107 (May 4, 1980): 4G, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Erika Billeter, “Malerei und Photographie: Begegnung zweier Medien,” Du: Die Kunstzeitschrift, no. 476 (October 1980): 40, 42, 47, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism, 2nd ed. (1980; New York: Artabras, 1997), 7, 109, 122–23, 179, 388, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Betty Beale, “Party scene still is burning bright,” Kansas City Star 101, no. 189 (April 25, 1981): 3C.

Donald Hoffmann, “The fine art of contributing to the gallery: Benefactors’ gifts help keep inflation at bay at the Nelson,” Kansas City Star 101, no. 225 (June 7, 1981): 1F, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Luigina Rossi Bortolatto, Tout l’œuvre peint de Monet: 1870–1889, ed. Janine Bailly-Herzberg, trans. Simone Darses (Paris: Flammarion, 1981), no. 90, pp. 94–95, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Jacques Dufwa, Winds from the East: A Study in the Art of Manet, Degas, Monet and Whistler, 1856–86 (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1981), 148–49, 190, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Diane Kelder, Die großen Impressionisten (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1981), 13, 123, 137, 196, 440, 444, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Yala H. Korwin, Index to Two-Dimensional Art Works (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1981), 1:552; 2:1028, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Sophie Monneret, L’Impressionnisme et son Époque, vol. 4 (Paris: Éditions Denoël, 1981), 24, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Mark Fraser and E.A. Torriero, “Nelson Gallery hopes changes will paint a new portrait,” Kansas City Times (January 30, 1982): A10, as Boulevard Des Capucines.

Patricia Pate Havlice, World Painting Index: First Supplement, 1973–1980 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1982), 1:445; 2:736, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Paul Hayes Tucker, Monet at Argenteuil (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), xii, 163, 172, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines (Le Boulevard des Capucines).

Helen O. Borowitz, “The Rembrandt and Monet of Marcel Proust,” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 70, no. 2 (February 1983): 90, as Boulevard of Capucines.

George L. McKenna, “My favorite things: What do the curators like?,” Kansas City Star 103, no. 186 (April 24, 1983): 13, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Laura Babcock, “The Nelson Art Gallery: a salute to the past,” Kansas City Star 104, no. 19 (October 9, 1983): 2F, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Patricia Failing, Best-Loved Art from American Museums (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1983), 58–59, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Robert Gordon and Andrew Forge, Monet (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1983), 72, 290, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines (The Boulevard des Capucines).

Ross E. Taggart and Roger B. Ward, City Views, exh. cat. (Kansas City, MO: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1983), 7, 14, 33, (repro.), as Paris. Boulevard des Capucines.

Michael Wilson, The Impressionists (Oxford, UK: Phaidon, 1983), 124, 126, 186, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Paul [Hayes] Tucker, “The first Impressionist exhibition and Monet’s Impression, Sunrise: a tale of times, commerce and patriotism,” Art History 7, no. 4 (December 1984): 475n1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Andrea P. A. Belloli, ed., A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), 355.

T. J. Clark, The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers, rev. ed. (1984; Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), xi, 70–71, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Nina Kalitina, Anna Barskaya, and Eugenia Georgievskaya, Claude Monet: Paintings in Soviet Museums, trans. Hugh Aplin and Ruslan Smirnov (Leningrad: Aurora Art, 1984), 127, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John Rewald and Frances Weitzenhoffer, eds., Aspects of Monet: A Symposium on the Artist’s Life and Times (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984), 94, 109, 119n10, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Robert Rosenblum and H. W. Janson, 19th-Century Art: Painting, Sculpture, rev. ed. (1984; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005), 350–52, 373, (repro.) as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

“Education Insights,” Calendar of Events (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (June 1985): unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Marina Bessonova, Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in Soviet Museums, trans. Yuri Pamfilov (Leningrad: Aurora Art, 1985), 335.

Horst Keller, Claude Monet (Munich: Verlag F. Bruckmann KG, 1985), 60–61, 72, 166, (repro.), as Der Boulevard des Capucines.

Arlene Doran Kirkpatrick, ed., Masterworks of Impressionism (Winston-Salem, NC: Masterworks Art Publications, 1985), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

John Rewald, Studies in Impressionism, eds. Irene Gordon and Frances Weitzenhoffer (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1985), V, 229, 231, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

The Great Artists, Their Lives, Works and Inspiration, Part 3: Monet (London: Marshall Cavendish, 1985), 78, 80, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Bruce Bernard, ed., The Impressionist Revolution (London: Orbis, 1986), 27, 268, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John House, Monet: Nature into Art (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986), 238n13, as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Eunice Lipton, Looking Into Degas: Uneasy Images of Women and Modern Life (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986), 94, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Charles S. Moffett, The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886, exh. cat. (Geneva: Richard Burton SA, 1986), 23, 108, 114n3, 117n92, 121, 130, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886,” Western Art Digest 13, no. 1 (January–February 1986): 76, 78, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Donald Hoffmann, “Excitement in the revolution again: ‘New Painting’ is a fresh breath of impressionism,” Kansas City Star 106, no. 133 (February 23, 1986): 1D, 6D, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Mark M. Johnson, “The New Painting: ‘Impressionism 1874–1886’,” Arts and Activities 99, no. 2 (March 1986): 30, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Gabriel P. Weisberg, “The Real Impressionist Crisis: ‘The New Painting’ Exhibition,” Arts Magazine 60, no. 7 (March 1986): 72, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Denys Sutton, “Impressionism and Revisionism,” Apollo 123, no. 292 (June 1986): 404, 413n1, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Museums to Sports, KC Has It All,” American Water Works Association Journal 79, no. 4 (April 1987): 133.

Lorenz Eitner, An Outline of 19th Century European Painting: From David Through Cézanne (New York: Harper and Row, 1987), 1:355, 413, as View of the Boulevard des Capucines.

Eberhard Roters and Bernhard Schulz, eds., Ich und die Stadt: Mensch und Großstadt in der deutschen Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts, exh. cat. (Berlin: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung Beuermann GmbH, 1987), 42–43, 43n7, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Kirk Varnadoe, Gustave Caillebotte, exh. cat. (1987; repr. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 88, 114, 140, 156, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Roger Ward, ed., A Bountiful Decade: Selected Acquisitions, 1977–1987, exh. cat. (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1987), 13, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Bradley Collins, Jr., “Reviews Work(s): Looking into Degas: Uneasy Images of Women and Modern Life by Eunice Lipton,” Woman’s Art Journal 9, no. 1 (Spring–Summer 1988): 39.

Ellen R. Goheen, The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1988), 14, 16, 100–01, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

S. Hollis Clayson, “The Family and the Father: ‘The Grande Jatte’ and Its Absences,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 14, no. 2 (1989): 242n14, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Nelson Gallery, institute form solid base for art landscape,” Kansas City Star 109, no. 135 (February 22, 1989): 26, as Boulevard des Capucines.

R. R. Bernier, “Monet’s ‘Language of the Sketch’,” Art History 12, no. 3 (September 1989): 319n4, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marc S. Gerstein, Impressionism: Selections from Five American Museums, exh. cat. (New York: Hudson Hills, 1989), 12, 20, 120–22, 140, 144, 148, 158, 164, 168, 178, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Toni Wood, “The impressionists broke all the rules: Modern viewers love impressionism,” Kansas City Star 110, no. 184 (April 15, 1990): H-4, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Scott Cantrell, “Keepers of the Light: Working from individual blueprints, impressionists laid colorful bricks in the foundation of modern art,” Kansas City Star 110, no. 191 (April 22, 1990): I-4, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Toni Wood, “Expatriate paintings in Midwest: Works took diverse routes to exhibit,” Kansas City Star 110, no. 233 (June 3, 1990): G-5, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Colta Ives, Helen Giambruni, and Sasha M. Newman, Pierre Bonnard: The Graphic Art, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1989), 124, 127, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Kenneth McConkey, British Impressionism (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989), 41, 160, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Joel Isaacson, “Reviewed Work(s): Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society by Robert L. Herbert,” Art Journal 49, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 63.

Henry Adams, “Winslow Homer’s ‘Impressionism’ and Its Relation to His Trip to France,” Studies in the History of Art 26 (1990): 84n1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Janet Braide and Nancy Parke-Taylor, Caroline and Frank Armington: Canadian Painter-Etchers in Paris ([Brampton, Canada]: Art Gallery of Peel, 1990), 44, 78n99, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Clive Gregory and Sue Lyon, eds., Great Artists of the Western World, vol. 7, Impressionism: Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir (London: Marshall Cavendish, 1990), 90, 142–43, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Horst Keller, Claude Monet: Der Impressionist (Serie Piper), vol. 1188 (Munich: R. Piper GmbH, 1990), 9, 56, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Katsumi Miyazaki, The Great History of Art (Kyoto, Japan: Dōhōsha Shuppan, 1990), 67, 142, 144, (repro.).

Karin Sagner-Düchting, Claude Monet, 1840–1926: Ein Fest für die Augen (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1990), 56–57, 60–61, 74, 97, (repro.), as Der Boulevard des Capucines, Le Boulevard des Capucines, and Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Lester M. Sdorow, Psychology, 3rd ed. (1990; Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark, 1995), 606, C-3, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Roger Ward, “Selected Acquisitions of European and American Paintings at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, 1986–1990,” Burlington Magazine 133, no. 1055 (February 1991): 150, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Matthew Bessell, Caumsett: The Home of Marshall Field III in Lloyd Harbor, New York (Huntington, NY: Huntington Town Board, 1991), 25, 51n48, as Boulevard.

Michael Howard, ed., The Impressionists by Themselves: A selection of their paintings, drawings, and sketches with extracts from their writings (London: Conran Octopus, 1991), 72, 317, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Martha Kapos, ed., The Impressionists: A Retrospective (New York: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 1991), 83, 86–87, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Sylvie Patin, Monet: “un œil… mais, bon dieu, quel œil!” (Paris: Gallimard, 1991), 56–57, 65, 170, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Charles F. Stuckey, French Painting (New York: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 1991), 150–51, 316, 319, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Daniel Wheeler, Art since Mid-Century: 1945 to the Present (New York: Vendome, 1991), 12–13, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet: Catalogue raisonné, vol. 5, Supplément aux peintures, dessins, pastels, index (Lausanne: Wildenstein Institute, 1991), no. 293, pp. 293, 303, 308, 315, 317, 328, 331, 333, 335, 337, 340.

Richard R. Brettell and Joachim Pissarro, The Impressionist and the City: Pissarro’s Series Paintings, exh. cat. (London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1992), xv–xvi, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Sophie Fourny-Dargère, Monet ([Paris]: Éditions de Chêne, 1992), 15–16, 78–79, 156, 160, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Manfred Koch-Hillebrecht, Museen in den USA: Gemälde (Munich: Hirmer Verlag GmbH, 1992), 244–45, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Gene Mittler and Rosalind Ragans, Understanding Art (1992; New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2007), 246, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Nathalie Reymond, Claude Monet (Paris: Éditions Jean-Claude Lattès, 1992), 153–54, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Virginia Spate, Claude Monet: Life and Work (New York: Rizzoli, 1992), 88, 96, 128, as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Sandro Sproccati, Monet (Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1992), 13, 23, 93, 104, 285, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “The Nelson celebrates its 60th; Museum built its reputation, collection virtually ‘from scratch’,” Kansas City Star (July 18, 1993): J1, as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Marianne Alphant, Claude Monet: Une Vie dans le Paysage (Paris: Hazan, 1993), 282, 288–89, 468, 698, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Michael Churchman and Scott Erbes, High Ideals and Aspirations: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art 1933–1993 (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1993), 95, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Bernard Denvir, The Chronicle of Impressionism: An Intimate Diary of the Lives and World of the Great Artists (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993), 279, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Peter H. Feist, Impressionism in France, vol. 1, Impressionist Art, 1860–1920, ed. Ingo F. Walther (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1993), 102–03, 129–30, 138, 141, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines (Le Boulevard des Capucines).

Christoph Heinrich, Claude Monet, 1840–1926 (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1993), 32–33, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jaarboek Haags Gemeentemuseum (The Hague: Haags Gemeentemuseum, 1993), 85, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Richard Kendall, Degas Landscapes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), 179, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Georg-W. Költzsch, ed. Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso, trans. Eileen Martin, exh. cat. (Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag, 1993), 372.

Claude Pétry-Parisot, De Charles de Meixmoron à Étienne Cournault: Rétrospective 1892–1950, exh. cat. (Nancy: Musée des Beaux-Arts, 1993), 45, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Larry Silver, Art in History (New York: Abbeville, 1993), 337, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Roger Ward and Patricia J. Fidler, eds., The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: A Handbook of the Collection (New York: Hudson Hills, 1993), 14, 18, 44, 130, 206, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jude Welton, Impressionism (London: Dorling Kindersley, 1993), 29, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Rosanne H. Lightstone, “Gustave Caillebotte’s Oblique Perspective: A New Source for ‘Le Pont de l’Europe’,” Burlington Magazine 136, no. 1100 (November 1994): 762, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Philip E. Bishop, Adventures in the Human Spirit, 5th ed. (1994; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007), 12, 358–60, 461, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Rupert Christiansen, Tales of the New Babylon: Paris 1869–1875 (London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1994), x, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Anne Distel et al., Gustave Caillebotte, 1848–1894, exh. cat. (Paris: Editions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994), 179, 196, 374, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jed Jackson, Art: A Comparative Study (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1994), 238–39, 277, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Martha Kapos, ed., Impresionismo (Cologne: Könemann, 1994), 83, 86–87, 375, 377–78, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Thomas F. X. Noble et al., Western Civilization: The Continuing Experiment (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), 949, A-10, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Norris Kelly Smith, Here I Stand: Perspective from Another Point of View (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), xi, 168–69, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Shigeru Tsuji, Kazuki Nishimura, and Kaori Kawataki, Manet to Monet, exh. cat. (Tokyo: Hakugadō Shuppan, 1994), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Paul Hayes Tucker, Katsunori Fukaya, and Katsumi Miyazaki, Monet: A Retrospective, exh. cat. (Nagoya, Japan: Chunichi Shimbun, 1994), 3, 5, 102–03, 106–07, 118–19, 255, 259n10, 278, 298, (repro.), as Le boulevard des Capucines.

David Van Zanten, Building Paris: Architectural Institutions and the Transformation of the French Capital, 1830–1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), IX, 9, 11, 348, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Roger Ward, “Degas Masterwork on Loan to Nelson-Atkins,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (Summer 1995): 2, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Take Note: UNICEF Uses Nelson’s Monet,” Kansas City Star 116, no. 5 (September 22, 1995): E7, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Charles F. Stuckey, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, exh. cat. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), 62, 198, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Monet-mania strikes—Chicago Art Institute presents largest showing of impressionist’s works,” Kansas City Star (July 23, 1995): J1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Richard R. Brettell, “Claude Monet, 1840–1926. Chicago,” Burlington Magazine 137, no. 1112 (November 1995): 772, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Patricia Pate Havlice, World Painting Index: Second Supplement, 1980–1989 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995), 1:702; 2:1151 as Boulevard des Capucines.

Nina Kalitina, Anna Barskaya, and Eugenia Georgievskaya, Claude Monet: The Power and the Harmony of Impressionism, trans. Hugh Aplin and Ruslan Smirnov (Bournemouth, UK: Parkstone, 1995), 74–75, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Monet: yureru hikari (Tokyo: Kōdansha, 1995), 51, 123, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Paul Smith, Impressionism: Beneath the Surface (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995), 18–19, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marilyn Stokstad, Art History, 2nd ed. (1995; New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002), 2:1022, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

George Gurley, “It is ‘Art History,’ indeed; KU’s Marilyn Stokstad labored eight years to produce a work of tremendous scope,” Kansas City Star (April 28, 1996): J1, as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

“Music Teachers National Association National Convention, March 23–27, 1996, Kansas City, Missouri,” American Music Teacher 45, no. 4 (February–March 1996): 23.

Peter Clothier, “Star Attractions,” ARTnews 95, no. 7 (Summer 1996): 42, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Have an art attack at museums, galleries,” Kansas City Star (June 23, 1996): 52, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ellen Williams, “Impressions of Paris,” Guggenheim Magazine 9 (Fall 1996): 46–47, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ruth Berson, The New Painting, Impressionism, 1874–1886 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1996), 1:6, 13, 16, 18, 24–27, 35, 40; 2:9, 24, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Robert Boardingham, Impressionist Masterpieces in American Museums (Westport, CT: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 1996), 10, 50–51, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

William U. Eiland, Donald Keyes, and Janice Simon, eds., Crosscurrents in American Impressionism at the Turn of the Century (Athens, GA: Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, 1996), 93–94, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ulrich Hamm and Gerhard Pick, Traum und Wirklichkeit: Malerei-Musik-Literatur der Jahrhundertwende (Stuttgart, Germany: Ernst Klett Verlag GmbH, 1996), 18, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Johann Georg, Prinz von Hohenzollern, and Peter-Klaus Schuster, eds., Manet bis Van Gogh: Hugo von Tschudi und der Kampf um die Moderne, exh. cat. (Munich: Prestel, 1996), 90, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Richard Kendall, ed., Monet by himself: paintings, drawings, pastels, letters, trans. Bridget Strevens Romer (Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1996), 10, 327, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Stephan Koja, Claude Monet (Munich: Prestel, 1996), 14, 24, 28–29, 186, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alan Krell, Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life (London: Thames and Hudson, 1996), 119, 121, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Patty Lurie, Guide to Impressionist Paris (Manchester, NH: Robson, 1996), 116–17, 179, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe, vol. 2, From the French Revolution to the Present (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996), (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Genevieve Morgan, ed., Monet: the artist speaks (San Francisco: Collins, 1996), 18, 94, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jane Mayo Roos, Early Impressionism and the French State (1866–1874) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 207, 210, 298, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet or The Triumph of Impressionism (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1996), no. 293, pp. 103–05, 479 (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet: Catalogue Raisonné; Werkverzeichnis, vol. 2, Nos. 1–968 (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1996), no. 293, pp. 125, 1023, 1028, 1036, 1043, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines, The Boulevard des Capucines, and Der Boulevard des Capucines.

“Behind the Scenes: Several European Paintings to Travel,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (October 1997): 4, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Life imitates art: That’s why the Nelson and other museums strive to police—and profit from—use of reproductions,” Kansas City Star (October 11, 1997): E1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“1997 Winter and Spring Adult Classes: Gallery Class—On the Boulevard,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (Winter 1997): unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Alice Thorson, “Traveling treasures: Some gallery favorites to go on tour as Nelson gears up for expansion,” Kansas City Star (December 13, 1997): E1, as Boulevard.

Michael Howard, Encyclopedia of Impressionism (San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 1997), 77, 252–53, 256, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Meyer Schapiro, Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions (New York: George Braziller, 1997), 62–63, 115, 348, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Susanne Weiß, Claude Monet: Ein distanzierter Blick auf Stadt und Land: Werke 1859–1889 (Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1997), 39, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ellen Williams, The Impressionists’ Paris: Walking Tours of the Painters’ Studios, Homes, and the Sites They Painted (New York: The Little Bookroom, 1997), 48–50, 97, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Dorathea K. Beard, “Reviewed Work(s): Early Impressionism and the French State (1866–1874) by Jane Mayo Roos,” Nineteenth-Century French Studies 26, no. 3/4 (Spring–Summer 1998): 480–81, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Pierre Daix, Pour une Histoire Culturelle de l’Art Moderne: De David à Cézanne (Paris: Éditions Odile Jacob, 1998), 232–33, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Matthias Arnold, Claude Monet (Reinbek bei Hamburg, Germany: Rowohlt, 1998), 98.

Augustín Arteaga, Sylvie Patin, and William H. Robinson, Maestros del impresionismo, exh. cat. (Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, 1998), 37, 39, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Michael Kelly, ed., Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, vol. 2 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 474, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Charles S. Moffett et al., Impressionists in Winter: Effets de Neige, exh. cat. (London: Phillip Wilson, 1998), 28, 34, 47, 78–79, 94–95, 196, 207–08, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Soko Phay-Vakalis, Monet: Les Carnets de l’art (Paris: Éditions du Chêne, 1998), 54.

Richard Thomson, ed., Framing France: The representation of landscapes in France, 1870–1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998), 38, 42, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Paul Hayes Tucker, Monet in the 20th Century, exh. cat. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), 24, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Matthew Simms, “Cézanne’s Unfinish,” RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, no. 36, Factura (Autumn 1999): 232–33, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Caroline Igra, “Monuments to Prior Glory: The Foreign Perspective on Post-Commune Paris,” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 62, no. 4 (1999): 519, 524n14, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Deborah Dorsey, “Giving Life to Your Landscapes,” Artist’s Magazine 16, no. 2 (February 1999): 52–53, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “City has art to please any palate,” Kansas City Star (June 20, 1999): 90, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Warren Adelson, Jay E. Cantor, and William H. Gerdts, Childe Hassam: Impressionist (New York: Abbeville, 1999), 12, 32, 250, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Claude Monet: La poesia della luce; Sette capolavori dell’Art Insitute di Chicago a Palazzo Pitti, exh. cat. (Florence: Giunti, 1999), 16, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Andrea Frey, Der Stadtraum in der französischen Malerei 1860–1900 (Berlin: Reimer, 1999), 84–86, 89–91, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ulrich Hamm and Gerhard Pick, Aufbruch in Die Moderne: Malerei, Literatur, Musik 1905–1920 (Leipzig, Germany: Ernst Klett Schulbuchverlag Leipzig GmbH, 1999), 22–24, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Jack Stewart, The Vital Art of D. H. Lawrence: Vision and Expression (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999), ix, 15, 21, 207n17, 245, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marilyn Stokstad, Art: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), 453, 547, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Paul Wood, ed., Art and its Histories: The Challenge of the Avant-Garde (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 44–45, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Art (Evening Sale) (New York: Christie’s, May 8, 2000), 27–28, (repro.), as Le boulevard des Capucines.

Craig Horst, “Travel on Foot to See the Quirky and Classic Art of Kansas City,” Salt Lake Tribune 250, no. 65 (June 18, 2000): H1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Craig Horst, “Kansas City museums offer the traditional and the quirky,” Ann Arbor News (June 25, 2000): unpaginated, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Behind the Scenes: Museum’s European Paintings in Demand,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (October 2000): 4, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jan Schall, ed., Tempus Fugit: Time Flies, exh. cat. (Kansas City, MO: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2000), 16, 238–39, 242–43, 331, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Quality ‘Time’ at the Nelson—‘Tempus Fugit’ exhibit succeeds in displaying art through the ages,” Kansas City Star (October 29, 2000): 11, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Special Exhibitions: Time Flies, So Don’t Miss Tempus Fugit,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (December 2000): 3, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Anthea Callen, The Art of Impressionism: Painting Technique and The Making of Modernity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 40–43, 182, 184, 242, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Marco Goldin, La Nascita dell’ Impressionismo (Conegliano, Italy: Linea d’ombra Libri, 2000), 85, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Lynne Knight, Snow Effects: Poems on “Impressionists in Winter” (Concord, CA: Small Poetry, 2000), 26, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Philip Nord, Impressionists and Politics: art and democracy in the nineteenth century (London: Routledge, 2000), 44.

Keiko Sakagami, 夢と光の画家たち: モデルニテ再考 [Les peintres des rêves et de la lumière: révision de la modernité] (Tokyo: Sukaidoa, 2000), 67, (repro.).

Alexander Sturgis, Telling Time, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery, 2000), 48–49, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Belinda Thomson, Impressionism: Origins, Practice, Reception (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000), 28–30, 265, 271, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John Sanford, “Monet’s works at Giverny don’t fit definition of Impressionism, professor argues,” Stanford Report 33, no. 22 (March 21, 2001): 5, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alisa Luxenberg, “‘Sticks and stones…’: naming and name-calling in Impressionist imagery,” Word and Image 17, no. 3 (July–September 2001): 284–85, 287, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Virginia Spate and Gary Hickey, Monet and Japan, exh. cat. (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2001), 20–21, 84, 195, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Virginia Spate and Gary Hickey, “Exhibition: Monet and Japan; Waves of Influences,” Art Newspaper: International Edition 12, no. 111 (February 2001): 39, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Angus Trumble, “Canberra and Perth: Monet and Japan,” Burlington Magazine 143, no. 1181 (August 2001): 521–22, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Lindsay Snider, “A Lasting Impression: French Painters Revolutionize the Art World,” The History Teacher 35, no. 1 (November 2001): 95, 99, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“2002 Friends of Art Travel Program: Monet in Paris 2002,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (December 2001): 7, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Susan Wittig Albert et al., World Literature, 3rd ed. (Austin: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2001), 1037, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Simona Bartolena, Monet (Milan: Electa, 2001), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Maria Teresa Benedetti, Monet: i luoghi (Florence: Giunti Gruppo Editoriale, 2001), 10, as Boulevard des Capucines.

James Fieser, Moral Philosophy through the Ages (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 2001), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marco Goldin, Monet: I luoghi della pittura, exh. cat. (Conegliano: Linea d’ombra Libri, 2001), 123, 128–29, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Barbara Palmbach, Paris und der Impressionismus: Die Großstadt als Impuls für neue Wahrnehmungsformen und Ausdrucksmöglichkeiten in der Malerei (Weimar: VDG, 2001), 15, 17, 138, 161–62, 164, 168, 228–29, 231, 256, 298, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Nobuyuki Senzoku, Art Nouveau and Art Deco (Tokyo: Shōgakkan, 2001), (repro.).

Paul Hayes Tucker et al., Renoir: From Outsider to Old Master, 1870–1892, exh. cat. (Nagoya, Japan: Chunichi Shimbun, 2001), 234, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Irina Antonova, Old Masters, Impressionists, and Moderns: French Masterworks from the State Pushkin Museum, Moscow (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 114n1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

David A. Brenneman et al., Paris in the Age of Impressionism: Masterworks from the Musée d’Orsay, exh. cat. (Atlanta: High Museum of Art, 2002), 22–23, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Norma Broude, ed., Gustave Caillebotte and the Fashioning of Identity in Impressionist Paris (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002), viii, 55–57, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Özkan Eroğlu, Two Winter Paintings, trans. Neşe Olcaytu (Istanbul: Nelli Sanatevi, 2002), 9–10, 13, 15, 20, 24, 32–35, 45–54, 57–60, 63–64, (repro.), as Capucines Boulevard, Capucines Bulvari, and Capuchine Boulevard.

Dario Gamboni, Potential Images: Ambiguity and Indeterminacy in Modern Art (London: Reaktion, 2002), 109, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Torsten Gunnarsson and Per Hedström, eds., Impressionism and the North: Late 19th Century French Avant-Garde Art and the Art in the Nordic Countries 1870–1920, exh. cat. (Stockholm: Nationalmuseum, 2002), 13, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Nancy G. Heller, Why a Painting is Like a Pizza: A Guide to Understanding and Enjoying Modern Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 67–68, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Anne Ring Petersen, Storbyens Billeder: Fra Industrialisme til Informationsalder (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, Københavns Universitet, 2002), 37–40, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John Sillevis, Esther Darley, and Françoise Heilbrun, De tijd van Degas, exh. cat. (Zwolle, The Netherlands: Waanders Uitgevers, 2002), 19, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Installation of Elevators ‘Lifts Off’: Galleries Close to Make Way for Construction, Thousands of Works Remain on View,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (March 2003): 2, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Verena Dolle, ed., Eichstätter Kolloquium, vol. 10, Das schwierige Individuum: Menschenbilder im 19. Jahrhundert (Regensburg, Germany: Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 2003), 256, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Patricia Pate Havlice, World Painting Index: Third Supplement 1990–1999, (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003), 1:777, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Debra N. Mancoff, Impressionism: Reflections of Beauty (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 2003), 36–39, 126, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Debra N. Mancoff, Monet: Nature into Art (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 2003), 8, 32–34, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Janet Marquardt and Stephen Eskilson, Frames of Reference: Art, History, and the World (2003; repr. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2005), 227, 229, 243, 374n7.23, 380, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Gilles Plazy, L’Aventure des grands impressionnistes (Paris: Pygmalion, 2003), 107.

William C. Seitz, Claude Monet (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2003), 66, 68–69, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Dean Sobel, Robert Mangold: Paintings, 1990–2002, exh. cat. (Aspen, CO: Aspen Art Museum, 2003), 22–23, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Art in Depth,” Newsletter (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (July–August 2004): 4, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Robert Bersson, Responding to Art: Form, Content, and Context (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004), 503–04, I8, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Akiko Fukai, Fashion in Colors, exh. cat. (New York: Assouline, 2004), 18, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marco Goldin, Monet, la Senna, le ninfee: il grande fiume e il nuovo secolo, exh. cat. (Conegliano, Italy: Linea d’ombra Libri, 2004), 57, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Keith J. Hayward, City Limits: Crime, Consumer Culture and the Urban Experience (London: GlassHouse, 2004), vii, xi, 35, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

John House, Impressionism: Paint and Politics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 55, 107–08.

Jean-Jacques Lévêque, Claude Monet: L’œil ébloui (1840–1926) (Paris: ACR Edition Internationale, 2004), 51, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Sylvie Patin, Claude Monet au Musée d’Orsay, exh. cat. (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 2004), 45.

John Rewald, The History of Impressionism (Inshou ha no rekishi) (Tōkyō: Kadokawa Gakugei Shuppan, Heisei, 2004), 237.

Norio Shimada, The History of Impressionism (Inshōha bijutsukan) (Tokyo: Shōgakukan, 2004), 141, (repro.).

H[elene] Barbara Weinberg, Childe Hassam: American Impressionist, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004), 65, 93, 412, 418, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Simona Bartolena, Omaggio agli Impressionisti (Milan: Mondadori Arte, 2005), 99, 104–05, 345, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marina Bessonova and Evgenia Georievskaya, France: Second Half 19th–20th Century Painting Collection (Moscow: State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, 2005), 178.

Peter Brooks, Realist Vision (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), 149–50, 158, 246, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Norma Broude, ed., Impressionismus: Eine internationale Kunstbewegung 1860–1920 (Cologne: DuMont, 2005), 122, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Vanessa Gavioli, ed., Art Classics: Monet (New York: Rizzoli, 2005), 37, 88.

Dorothee Hansen and Wulf Herzogenrath, eds., Monet und Camille: Frauenportraits im Impressionismus, exh. cat. (Munich: Hirmer Verlag GmbH, 2005), 32.

Impressionism (Rochester, UK: Grange Books, 2005), 14, 92–93, 248, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Elizabeth Prettejohn, Beauty and Art, 1750–2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 108–09, 216, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Gene Mittler and Rosalind Ragans, Exploring Art: Teacher Wraparound Edition (New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2005), 77–79, 327, 347, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Victor I. Stoichita, Ver Y No Ver: La tematización de la mirada en la pintura impresionista, trans. Anna María Coderch (Madrid: Ediciones Siruela, 2005), 32–33, 41, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Wolf Arnold, “Art and Photography,” Australian Photography (March 2006): 31–32, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ann Spivak, “Memories are made of this,” Kansas City Star (April 9, 2006): 6, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Paul Horsley, “An Exhibition of Music-Arts Groups are Pairing Mussorgsky Classic with Visual Counterparts,” Kansas City Star (October 22, 2006): 6, as Boulevard des Capuchines [sic].

Jennifer A. Bailey and Lucinda H. Gedeon, Masters of Light: Selections of American Impressionism from the Manoogian Collection, exh. cat. (Vero Beach, FL: Vero Beach Museum of Art, 2006), 15, 116n24, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Fleeting Impressions: Prints by James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat. (Montgomery, AL: Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, 2006), 43–44, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marco Goldin, Turner e gli impressionisti: La grande storia del paesaggio moderno in Europa, exh. cat. (Treviso, Italy: Linea d’Ombri Libri, 2006), 253, 261n6, 280, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Karin Sagner et al., eds., Die Eroberung der Strasse: von Monet bis Grosz, exh. cat. (Munich: Hirmer, 2006), 88, 213, 215, 293, 312–13, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Possibly Karin Sagner, Monet at Giverny (Munich: Prestel, 2006), 104, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Norio Shimada, Claude Monet (Tokyo: Shōgakukan, 2006), 50–51, (repro.).

Patrick Vauday, La Décolonisation du Tableau: Art et politique au XIXe siècle; Delacroix, Gauguin, Monet (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2006), 96–97 (repro.), 152–54, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ian Kennedy, “Monet’s ‘Boulevard des Capucines’: USA or Russia?”, Apollo 165, no. 541 (March 2007): 69–71, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Joseph Baillio, Claude Monet (1840–1926): A Tribute to Daniel Wildenstein and Katia Granoff, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein, 2007), 70, 127, 139, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ronald R. Bernier, Monument, Moment, and Memory: Monet’s Cathedral in Fin-de-Siècle France (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2007), 19–20, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Albert Boime, Art in an Age of Civil Struggle, 1848–1871 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 4:753–55, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Richard R. Brettell and Joachim Pissarro, Manet to Matisse: Impressionist Masters from the Marion and Henry Bloch Collection, exh. cat. (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2007), 14, 163, 165, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Nathalia Brodskaïa, Impressionism (London: Parkstone Press, 2007), 105, 107, 109, 254, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Heather Campbell Coyle and Joyce K. Schiller, John Sloan’s New York, exh. cat. (Wilmington, DE: Delaware Art Museum, 2007), 90–91, 112, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Penelope J. E. Davies et al., Janson’s History of Art: The Western Tradition, 7th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007), 875, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines, Paris.

Akiko Fukai et. al., Modachrome: El Color en la Historia de la Moda, exh. cat. ([Madrid]: Ministerio de Cultura, 2007), 31, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Claudio Zambianchi, Monet e la pittura en plein air (Florence: E-Ducation.it, 2007), 175, 178–79, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

“Couple Offers Special Support for Beloved Painting,” Member Magazine (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (Spring 2008): 14, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Christine Dixon, Ron Radford, and Lucina Ward, Turner to Monet: The Triumph of Landscape Painting, exh. cat. (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2008), 216, 218, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Michael Howard, Monet (Munich: ArsEdition, 2008), 32–33, 86, 88, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Stéphane Lambert, L’Adieu au paysage: Les Nymphéas de Claude Monet (Paris: Éditions de la Différence, 2008), 51, 119, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

James H. Rubin, Impressionism and the Modern Landscape: Productivity, Technology, and Urbanization from Manet to Van Gogh (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 5–6, 10, 30–32, 36, 46–47, 160, 203n36, 235, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Simon Kelly, “Re-Viewing Landscape; Reviewed Works: Impressionism and the Modern Landscape. Productivity, Technology and Urbanization from Manet to Van Gogh by James H. Rubin; Landscape and Vision in Nineteenth-Century Britain and France by Michael Charlesworth,” Oxford Art Journal 32, no. 2 (2009): 317, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Deborah Emont Scott, ed., The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: A Handbook of the Collection, 7th ed. (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2008), XIV, 35, 117, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Françoise Heilbrun, “Impressionism and Photography,” History of Photography 33, no. 1 (February 2009): 21, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Eye Level—‘Boulevard des Capucines’,” Kansas City Star (February 8, 2009): MG17, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Richard R. Brettell and C. D. Dickerson III, From the Private Collections of Texas: European Art, Ancient to Modern, exh. cat. (Fort Worth, TX: Kimbell Art Museum, 2009), 293, 453, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jay A. Clarke, Becoming Edvard Munch: Influence, Anxiety, and Myth, exh. cat. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2009), 44, 46, 203, 226, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Art Institute of Chicago reinterprets Edvard Munch in a stunning exhibit,” Kansas City Star (March 8, 2009): F1, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Susie Hodge, Monet: His Life and Works in 500 Images (London: Lorenz, 2009), 41, 254, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Isabel Kuhl, Impressionism: A Celebration of Light (Bath, UK: Parragon, 2009), 102, 104–05, 107–08, 221, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alfredo Cramerotti, ed., Unmapping the City: Perspectives of Flatness (Bristol, UK: Intellect, 2010), 34, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Stephen F. Eisenman, ed., From Corot to Monet: The Ecology of Impressionism (Milan: Skira, 2010), 240.

Hartwig Fischer and Sandra Gianfreda, Bilder einer Metropole: die Impressionisten in Paris, exh. cat. (Göttingen, Germany: Edition Folkwang/Steidl, 2010), 73, 77, as Der Boulevard des Capucines.

Frances Fowle, Van Gogh’s Twin: The Scottish Art Dealer Alexander Reid 1854–1928 (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland, 2010), 131, 175n40, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Mary Mathews Gedo, Monet and his Muse: Camille Monet in the Artist’s Life (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 136, 177, 283, as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Noémie Goldman, Monet: son musée, exh. cat. (Paris: Hazan, 2010), 40, 229n6, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Ségolène Le Men, Monet (Paris: Citadelles et Mazenod, 2010), 202–03, 206, 342, 454, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Carsten Thau, Arkitekturen som tidsmaskine (Copenhagen: Kunstakademiets Arkitektskoles Forlag, 2010), 86, 92, 93–96, 98, 101, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet or the Triumph of Impressionism, rev. ed. (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 2010), no. 293, pp. 103, 105, 472, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

Laurence Madeline, “C’était l’été 74,” 48/14: La revue du Musée d’Orsay, no. 31 (Spring 2011): 59, 65n67, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Three Times the Wonder: Claude Monet’s later work reflects his obsession with the color and reflections in his water garden,” Kansas City Star Magazine, supplement, Kansas City Star 131, no. 198 (April 3, 2011): S9, as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Society of Fellows: Gallery and Go Lunchtime Series,” Explore Art (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) (May–June 2011): (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Camilla Storskog, “Literary Impressionism and Finland: A Critical Digest,” Scandinavian Studies 83, no. 3 (Fall 2011): 406n27, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Simona Bartolena, Monet (Munich: Prestel Verlag, 2011), 68–69, 143–44, 155, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Rosemarie A. Frederick, ed., Len Chmiel: an authentic nature (Centennial, CO: RFA, 2011), 12, 189, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Caroline Mathieu, Isabelle Julia, and Carole Benaiteau, Paris au temps des impressionnistes, 1848–1914, exh. cat. (Paris: Skira Flammarion, 2011), 51–52, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ed Lilley, “A rediscovered English review of the 1874 Impressionist exhibition,” Burlington Magazine 154, no. 1317 (December 2012): 844.

Therese Dolan, ed., Perspectives on Manet (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2012), 84–85, 87, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Benedict Leca, ed., Monet in Giverny: Landscapes of Reflection, exh. cat. (London: GILES, 2012), 66–67, 96, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Philippe Thiébaut, Les impressionnistes et la mode, exh. cat. (Paris: Gallimard, 2012), unpaginated, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Lutz Lesle, “Reviewed Work(s): ‘Capriccio: 20th and 21st-Century Works for Solo Oboe’,” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 174, no. 5 (2013): 86, as Boulevard des Capucines

Richard M. Berrong, Putting Monet and Rembrandt into Words: Pierre Loti’s Recreation and Theorization of Claude Monet’s Impressionism and Rembrandt’s Landscapes in Literature (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Romance Languages, 2013), 42, 44, 88n14, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Frédéric Cousinié, ed., L’impressionnisme: du plein air au territoire (Mont-Saint-Aignan, France: Presses universitaires de Rouen et du Havre, 2013), 167–68, 223–24, 251, 253, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines and as Le boulevard des Capucines, erroneously cited as being in the Pushkin Museum.

Philippe Cros, Monet: au cœur de la vie, exh. cat. (Cinisello Balsamo, Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2013), 28, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Peter H. Feist, Impressionism 1860–1920, Part I, Impressionism in France, ed. Ingo F. Walther (Cologne: Taschen, 2013), 102–03, 129–30, 138, 682, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines (Le Boulevard des Capucines).

Simon Kelly and April M. Watson, Impressionist France: Visons of Nation from Le Grey to Monet, exh. cat. (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 2013), 49, 102–03, 107n4, 110, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “Nelson’s ‘Impressionist France’ offers an insider’s guide to a country in transition,” Kansas City Star (November 8, 2013): unpaginated, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Alice Thorson, “A Journey in Art and France,” Kansas City Star, no. 54 (November 10, 2013): D2, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ségolène Le Men, La bibliothèque de Monet (Paris: Citadelles et Mazenod, 2013), 208–09, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Martina Padberg, Impressionism (Cologne: Tandem Verlag GmbH, 2013), 82–83, 87, 209, 283, 287, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

James H. Rubin, How to Read Impressionism: Ways of Looking (New York: Abrams, 2013), 90–91, 96, 386, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Guillermo Solana, Joachim Pissarro, and Richard R. Brettell, Pissarro, exh. cat. (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2013), 31, 44, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Aline Hauck, Collection Les Rencontres du patrimoine de la Générale, no. 2, Charles de Meixmoron: l’artiste caché (Schiltigheim, France: Aline Hauck, 2014), unpaginated, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Agnes Husslein-Arco and Stephan Koja, eds., Looking at Monet: The Great Impressionist and his Influence on Austrian Art, exh. cat. (Vienna: Belvedere, 2014), 18, 23, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Jon Kear, The Treasures of the Impressionists (London: André Deutsch, 2014), 10–11, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Gorden Kerr, Claude Monet: Masterpieces of Art (London: Flame Tree, 2014), 64, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

George Mather, The Psychology of Visual Art: Eye, Brain and Art (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 96, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marianne Mathieu and Dominique Lobstein, Monet’s Impression Sunrise: The Biography of a Painting, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions Hazan, 2014), 106, 108, 115n3, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Colin Martin, “Impressionism in Focus: Shows in Paris, London and Philadelphia,” Craft Arts International, no. 94 (2015): 69–70, (repro.), as Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Peter Baldinger, Andrea Bischof, and Bodo Hassel, Mit Blick auf Monet: Drei Zeitgenössische Positionen, ed. Stephan Koja (Salzburg: Artbook, 2015), 11, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marina Ferretti Bocquillon and Xavier Rey, Degas: Un peintre impressioniste?, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 2015), 40.

Jorge Coli, Le corps de la liberté: essais sur la peinture du XIXe siècle (Grenoble: ELLUG-MSH-Alpes, Université Grenoble-Alpes, 2015), 11, 14, 17, 157, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Anne Gray, Tom Roberts, exh. cat. (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2015), 35, 125, 348, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Felix Krämer, ed., Monet and the Birth of Impressionism, exh. cat. (Munich: Prestel, 2015), 9, 19, 24, 33, 149, 208, 224, 283, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines/Le Boulevard des Capucines.

Mary Morton and George T. M. Shackelford, Gustave Caillebotte: The Painter’s Eye, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2015), 53, 140, 254n5, as Boulevard des Capucines.

A. K. Prakash, Impressionism in Canada: A Journey of Rediscovery (Stuttgart: Arnoldsche Art Publishers, 2015), 99, 746, 771, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ralph Skea, Monet’s Trees: Paintings and Drawings by Claude Monet (London: Thames and Hudson, 2015), 30–31, 111, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Vlastimil Tetiva, Claude Monet: (1840–1926) (Prague: Regulus, 2015), 19, 60, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Norbert Wolf, Impressionism: Reimagining Art (Munich: Prestel, 2015), 35, 37, 265, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Nina Siegal, “Upon a Closer Review, The Credit Goes to Bosch,” New York Times 165, no. 57130 (February 2, 2016): C5.

“Nelson-Atkins to unveil renovated Bloch Galleries of European Art in winter 2017,” Artdaily.org (July 20, 2016), http://artdaily.com/news/88852/Nelson-Atkins-to-unveil-renovated-Bloch-Galleries-of-European-Art-in-winter-2017-#.WXjt4-SWxaR.

Kelly Baum, Andrea Bayer and Sheena Wagstaff, Unfinished: Thoughts Left Visible, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016), 132, 138, 156, 303–04, 330, 336, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Tony Bonyhady et al., Australia’s Impressionists, ed. Christopher Riopelle, exh. cat. (London: National Gallery, 2016), 112–13, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Helen M. Davies, Emile and Isaac Pereire: Bankers, Socialists and Sephardic Jews in nineteenth-century France (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2016), (repro.).

Catherine Futter et al., Bloch Galleries: Highlights from the Collection of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 2016), 68–69, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Marianna Hussl-Hörmann and Hans-Peter Wipplinger, eds., Theodor von Hörmann—Von Paris zur Secession, exh. cat. (Vienna: Leopold Museum, 2016), 114, 139, 143, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Géraldine Lefebvre, ed., Monet au Havre: les années décisives, exh. cat. (Vanves, France: Éditions Hazan, 2016), 167, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Michael Marrinan, Gustave Caillebotte: Painting the Paris of Naturalism, 1872–1887 (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2016), 50–51, 80, 95, 386, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

George T.M. Shackelford, Monet: The Early Years, exh. cat. (Fort Worth, TX: Kimbell Art Museum, 2016), 60–61, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Menachem Wecker, “Jewish Philanthropist Establishes Kansas City as Cultural Mecca,” The Forward (March 14, 2017), http://forward.com/culture/365264/jewish-philanthropist-establishes-kansas-city-as-cultural-mecca/ [repr. in Menachem Wecker, “Kansas City Collection Is A Chip Off the Old Bloch,” Forward (March 17, 2017): 20–22], as Boulevard des Capucines.

Carol Jacobi, The Impressionists: An Introduction, ed. Nicola Bion (London: Tate Publishing, 2017), 21, 50–51, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Ortrud Westheider and Michael Philipp, eds., Impressionism: The Art of Landscape, exh. cat. (Munich: Prestel, 2017), 21, 23, 28, 30, 246, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

“Landmark Monet exhibition to premiere at Denver Art Museum,” Artdaily.org (July 24, 2018), http://artdaily.com/news/106403/Landmark-Monet-exhibition-to-premiere-at-Denver-Art-Museum, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Heinz Widauer and Dieter Buchhart, eds. Claude Monet: A Floating World, exh. cat. (Vienna: Albertina, 2018), 38–39, 42, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Courtney J. Campbell, Allegra Giovine, and Jennifer Keating, eds., Empty Spaces: perspectives on emptiness in modern history (London: University of London Press, 2019), 113, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Angelica Daneo et al., eds., Claude Monet: The Truth of Nature, exh. cat. (Munich: Prestel, 2019), 27, 55–56, 59, 98, 100, 104–05, 260n8, 262n2, 264, (repro.), as The Boulevard des Capucines.

“Denver premieres landmark Monet exhibition,” Artdaily.org (October 25, 2019), https://artdaily.cc/news/117822/Denver-premieres-landmark-Monet-exhibition#.XbMO2-SWyic, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Christine de Menthon, Sur les pas de Charles de Meixmoron peintre impressionniste et industriel à Nancy et à Diénay (Société d’histoire Tille-Ignon, 2019), 58–59, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines.

Maria Luisa Pacelli, Barbara Guidi, Hélène Pinet, De Nittis e la rivoluzione dello sguardo, exh. cat. (Ferrara, Italy: Fondazione Ferrara Arte, 2019), 79, 90n17, (repro.), as Boulevard des Capucines a Parigi.

Frances Fowle, “A Woman of No Importance?: Elizabeth Workman’s Collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Art in Context,” 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century (January 5, 2021): https://doi.org/10.16995/ntn.3001, as Boulevard des Capucines.

Joel Isaacson, “Monet: Le Boulevard des Capucines en Carnival,” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide 20, no. 1 (Spring 2021): unpaginated, (repro.), https://doi.org/10.29411/ncaw.2021.20.1.3, as Le Boulevard des Capucines.